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Evaluation of prognostic indicators for goats with pregnancy toxemia

Katharine M. Simpson1Department of Large Animal Medicine and Surgery, School of Veterinary Medicine, St. George's University, True Blue, Grenada, West Indies.

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Jared D. Taylor2Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078.

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Robert N. Streeter3Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078.

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Abstract

Objective

To evaluate potential prognostic indicators for does with pregnancy toxemia (PT) and their offspring.

DESIGN

Retrospective cohort study.

ANIMALS

56 does.

PROCEDURES

Medical records were searched to identify does with PT. Signalment, history, clinical signs, examination findings, treatments, number of offspring present, and duration of hospitalization for does as well as outcome (death vs survival to hospital discharge) for does and their kids were recorded. Variables of interest were examined for association with outcome by contingency table analyses.

RESULTS

Boer goats were overrepresented, compared with the general population of goats for the facility in the last year of the study. Most (15/36) does had appropriate body condition scores. All pregnancies involved twins (11/56), triplets (37), or quadruplets (7). Neutrophilia (26/26) and hyperglycemia (32/40) were common in does. Most (39/56) does survived to hospital discharge. Does with high BUN concentration and those with serum bicarbonate concentration < 15 mEq/L were more likely to die than does without these findings. Forty-nine does survived to delivery of offspring; survival to discharge for these does was positively associated with outcome of their offspring. Among offspring of dams that survived to their delivery, twins had a higher survival rate than quadruplets. Death was more likely for offspring delivered by cesarean section than for those delivered vaginally.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested Boers were more likely to develop PT than goats of other breeds in the population examined at the study hospital. In contrast with other studies, hyperglycemia was common in affected does. Further research is needed to confirm associations with outcome identified in this study.

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate potential prognostic indicators for does with pregnancy toxemia (PT) and their offspring.

DESIGN

Retrospective cohort study.

ANIMALS

56 does.

PROCEDURES

Medical records were searched to identify does with PT. Signalment, history, clinical signs, examination findings, treatments, number of offspring present, and duration of hospitalization for does as well as outcome (death vs survival to hospital discharge) for does and their kids were recorded. Variables of interest were examined for association with outcome by contingency table analyses.

RESULTS

Boer goats were overrepresented, compared with the general population of goats for the facility in the last year of the study. Most (15/36) does had appropriate body condition scores. All pregnancies involved twins (11/56), triplets (37), or quadruplets (7). Neutrophilia (26/26) and hyperglycemia (32/40) were common in does. Most (39/56) does survived to hospital discharge. Does with high BUN concentration and those with serum bicarbonate concentration < 15 mEq/L were more likely to die than does without these findings. Forty-nine does survived to delivery of offspring; survival to discharge for these does was positively associated with outcome of their offspring. Among offspring of dams that survived to their delivery, twins had a higher survival rate than quadruplets. Death was more likely for offspring delivered by cesarean section than for those delivered vaginally.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested Boers were more likely to develop PT than goats of other breeds in the population examined at the study hospital. In contrast with other studies, hyperglycemia was common in affected does. Further research is needed to confirm associations with outcome identified in this study.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Simpson's present address is Livestock Medicine and Surgery, Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biological Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

Address correspondence to Dr. Simpson (katie.simpson@colostate.edu).