Complications and clinical utility of ultrasonographically guided pyelocentesis and antegrade pyelography in cats and dogs: 49 cases (2007–2015)

Nahvid M. Etedali 1Department of Clinical Sciences and Advanced Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104

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Jennifer A. Reetz 1Department of Clinical Sciences and Advanced Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104

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Jonathan D. Foster 1Department of Clinical Sciences and Advanced Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the diagnostic utility and clinical safety of ultrasonographically guided percutaneous pyelocentesis and antegrade pyelography in cats and dogs.

DESIGN

Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS

39 cats and 10 dogs with 55 affected kidneys.

PROCEDURES

Medical records were reviewed to identify cats and dogs that underwent ultrasonographically guided pyelocentesis and antegrade pyelography between June 1, 2007, and December 31, 2015. Data collected included procedure descriptions; results of diagnostic imaging, urine cytologic evaluation, and bacterial culture; and evidence of complications. Animals were assigned to the pyelocentesis group (underwent only pyelocentesis) or to the antegrade pyelography group (underwent pyelocentesis followed immediately by pyelography).

RESULTS

The diagnostic rate for pyelography was 94% (31/33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 80.4% to 98.9%). The total, minor, and major complication rates for both treatment groups combined were 25% (95% CI, 15.8% to 38.3%), 24% (95% CI, 14.4% to 36.3%), and 2% (95% CI, 0.09% to 9.6%), respectively. Performing bacterial culture of urine obtained by pyelocentesis did not provide an advantage over performing bacterial culture of urine obtained from the lower urinary tract.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Findings indicated that ultrasonographically guided pyelocentesis and antegrade pyelography were well-tolerated techniques for investigating upper urinary tract disease in cats and dogs and that pyelography had a higher diagnostic rate than previously reported; therefore, pyelography should be considered for identification of mechanical and functional ureteral patency abnormalities in cats and dogs.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the diagnostic utility and clinical safety of ultrasonographically guided percutaneous pyelocentesis and antegrade pyelography in cats and dogs.

DESIGN

Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS

39 cats and 10 dogs with 55 affected kidneys.

PROCEDURES

Medical records were reviewed to identify cats and dogs that underwent ultrasonographically guided pyelocentesis and antegrade pyelography between June 1, 2007, and December 31, 2015. Data collected included procedure descriptions; results of diagnostic imaging, urine cytologic evaluation, and bacterial culture; and evidence of complications. Animals were assigned to the pyelocentesis group (underwent only pyelocentesis) or to the antegrade pyelography group (underwent pyelocentesis followed immediately by pyelography).

RESULTS

The diagnostic rate for pyelography was 94% (31/33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 80.4% to 98.9%). The total, minor, and major complication rates for both treatment groups combined were 25% (95% CI, 15.8% to 38.3%), 24% (95% CI, 14.4% to 36.3%), and 2% (95% CI, 0.09% to 9.6%), respectively. Performing bacterial culture of urine obtained by pyelocentesis did not provide an advantage over performing bacterial culture of urine obtained from the lower urinary tract.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Findings indicated that ultrasonographically guided pyelocentesis and antegrade pyelography were well-tolerated techniques for investigating upper urinary tract disease in cats and dogs and that pyelography had a higher diagnostic rate than previously reported; therefore, pyelography should be considered for identification of mechanical and functional ureteral patency abnormalities in cats and dogs.

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