• 1. AVMA. Antimicrobial stewardship definition and core principles. Available at: www.avma.org/KB/Policies/Pages/Antimicrobial-Stewardship-Definition-and-Core-Principles.aspx. Accessed Sep 25, 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Weinstein L. Chemotherapy of microbial diseases. 5th ed. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co Inc, 1975.

  • 3. Giltner LT. Animal diseases. In: Science in farming, the yearbook of agriculture, 1943–1947. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1947;8194.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Jones LM. Antibiotics. In: Animal diseases, the yearbook of agriculture, 1956. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1956;9496.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Livestock: use of antimicrobial drugs. State of California. SB-27. Available at: leginfo.legislature.ca.gov/faces/billNavClient.xhtml?bill_id=201520160SB27. Accessed Sep 30, 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Keep Antibiotics Effective Act of 2017. State of Maryland. SB0422 (CH0788). Available at: mgaleg.maryland.gov/webmga/frmMain.aspx?pid=billpage&stab=02&id=sb0422&tab=subject3&ys=2017RS. Accessed Sep 30, 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. WHO guidelines on use of medically important antimicrobials in food-producing animals. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2017.

  • 8. Preservation of Antibiotics for Medical Treatment Act of. 2017. H.R.1587. 115th Congress (2017–2018). Available at: www.congress.gov/bill/115th-congress/house-bill/1587/text. Accessed Dec 26, 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Dorland's illustrated medical dictionary. 25th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1974.

  • 10. Mausner J, Kramer S. Measurement of morbidity and mortality. In: Epidemiology: an introductory text. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1985;4354.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Martin SW, Meek AH, Willeberg P. Rationale, strategies, and concepts of animal disease control. In: Veterinary epidemiology. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1987;245257.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. FDA. Guidance for industry #209: the judicious use of medically important antimicrobial drugs in food-producing animals. Available at: www.fda.gov/downloads/AnimalVeterinary/GuidanceComplianceEnforcement/GuidanceforIndustry/UCM216936.pdf. Accessed Sep 18, 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Apley MD, Fajt VR. Feedlot therapeutics. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 1998;14:291313.

  • 14. Thomson DU, White BJ. Backgrounding beef cattle. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 2006;22:373398.

  • 15. Antibiotic resistance: agencies have made limited progress addressing antibiotic use in animals. GAO-11–801. In: Report to the ranking member, Committee on Rules, House of Representatives. Washington, DC: US Government Accountability Office, 2011;67.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. World Organisation for Animal Health. Terrestrial animal health code. Monitoring of the quantities and usage patterns of antimicrobial agents used in food-producing animals. Available at: www.oie.int/index.phpid=169&L=0&htmfile=chapitre_antibio_monitoring.htm. Accessed Sep 25, 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. AVMA. Definitions of antimicrobial use for treatment, control and prevention. Available at: www.avma.org/KB/Policies/Pages/AVMA-Definitions-of-Antimicrobial-Use-for-Treatment-Control-and-Prevention.aspx. Accessed Nov 14, 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

The AVMA's definitions of antimicrobial uses for prevention, control, and treatment of disease

David R. Smith1(representing American Association of Bovine Practitioners), Starkville, Miss.

Search for other papers by David R. Smith in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, PhD
,
Patricia S. Gaunt2(representing American Association of Fish Veterinarians), Stoneville, Miss.

Search for other papers by Patricia S. Gaunt in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, PhD
,
Paul J. Plummer3(representing American Association of Small Ruminant Practitioners), Boone, Iowa.

Search for other papers by Paul J. Plummer in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, PhD
,
Hector M. Cervantes4(representing American Association of Avian Pathologists), Watkinsville, Ga.

Search for other papers by Hector M. Cervantes in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, MS
,
Peter Davies5(representing American Association of Swine Veterinarians), Saint Paul, Minn.

Search for other papers by Peter Davies in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 BVSc, PhD
,
Virginia R. Fajt6(representing American Association of Small Ruminant Practitioners), College Station, Tex.

Search for other papers by Virginia R. Fajt in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, PhD
,
Erin Frey7(representing American Animal Hospital Association), Raleigh, NC.

Search for other papers by Erin Frey in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, MPH
,
Michele T. Jay-Russell8(representing American Association of Food Safety and Public Health Veterinarians), Davis, Calif.

Search for other papers by Michele T. Jay-Russell in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, MPVM, PhD
,
Terry W. Lehenbauer9(representing American Association of Bovine Practitioners), Tulare, Calif.

Search for other papers by Terry W. Lehenbauer in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, MPVM, PhD
,
Mark G. Papich10(representing American Association of Equine Practitioners), Raleigh, NC.

Search for other papers by Mark G. Papich in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, MS
,
Tina M. Parker11(at-large member), Gaithersburg, Md.

Search for other papers by Tina M. Parker in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, MScPH
,
Erin C. Phipps12(at-large member), Albuquerque, NM.

Search for other papers by Erin C. Phipps in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, MPH
,
Joni M. Scheftel13(representing American Association of Food Safety and Public Health Veterinarians), Mayer, Minn.

Search for other papers by Joni M. Scheftel in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, MPH
,
Lauren V. Schnabel14(representing American Association of Equine Practitioners), Holly Springs, NC.

Search for other papers by Lauren V. Schnabel in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, PhD
,
Randall S. Singer15(representing American Association of Avian Pathologists), Saint Paul, Minn.

Search for other papers by Randall S. Singer in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, PhD
,
Janet E. Whaley16(representing American Association of Fish Veterinarians), Brookeville, Md.

Search for other papers by Janet E. Whaley in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM
,
Jennifer K. Wishnie17(representing American Association of Swine Veterinarians), San Luis Obispo, Calif.

Search for other papers by Jennifer K. Wishnie in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, MSc, MPH
,
Lindsay R. Wright18(representing American Animal Hospital Association), Salt Lake City, Utah.

Search for other papers by Lindsay R. Wright in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM
, and
Michael Costin19(AVMA staff consultant to the committee), Schaumburg, Ill.

Search for other papers by Michael Costin in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, MBA

Abstract

Recent state and federal legislative actions and current recommendations from the World Health Organization seem to suggest that, when it comes to antimicrobial stewardship, use of antimicrobials for prevention, control, or treatment of disease can be ranked in order of appropriateness, which in turn has led, in some instances, to attempts to limit or specifically oppose the routine use of medically important antimicrobials for prevention of disease. In contrast, the AVMA Committee on Antimicrobials believes that attempts to evaluate the degree of antimicrobial stewardship on the basis of therapeutic intent are misguided and that use of antimicrobials for prevention, control, or treatment of disease may comply with the principles of antimicrobial stewardship. It is important that veterinarians and animal caretakers are clear about the reason they may be administering antimicrobials to animals in their care. Concise definitions of prevention, control, and treatment of individuals and populations are necessary to avoid confusion and to help veterinarians clearly communicate their intentions when prescribing or recommending antimicrobial use.

Abstract

Recent state and federal legislative actions and current recommendations from the World Health Organization seem to suggest that, when it comes to antimicrobial stewardship, use of antimicrobials for prevention, control, or treatment of disease can be ranked in order of appropriateness, which in turn has led, in some instances, to attempts to limit or specifically oppose the routine use of medically important antimicrobials for prevention of disease. In contrast, the AVMA Committee on Antimicrobials believes that attempts to evaluate the degree of antimicrobial stewardship on the basis of therapeutic intent are misguided and that use of antimicrobials for prevention, control, or treatment of disease may comply with the principles of antimicrobial stewardship. It is important that veterinarians and animal caretakers are clear about the reason they may be administering antimicrobials to animals in their care. Concise definitions of prevention, control, and treatment of individuals and populations are necessary to avoid confusion and to help veterinarians clearly communicate their intentions when prescribing or recommending antimicrobial use.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Smith (david.smith@msstate.edu).