• 1. Turek MM, Withrow SJ. Perianal tumors. In: Withrow SJ, Vail DM, Page RL, eds. Withrow and MacEwen's small animal clinical oncology. 5th ed. St Louis: Elsevier Saunders, 2013;423431.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Mellanby R, Foale R, Friend E, et al. Anal sac adenocarcinoma in a Siamese cat. J Feline Med Surg 2002;4:205207.

  • 3. Parry NM. Anal sac gland carcinoma in a cat. Vet Pathol 2006;43:10081009.

  • 4. Petterino C, Woodger N. What is your diagnosis? Perianal gland mass in a cat. Anal sac gland carcinoma. Vet Clin Pathol 2014;43:611612.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Wright ZM, Fryer JS, Calise DV, et al. Carboplatin chemotherapy in a cat with a recurrent anal sac apocrine gland adenocarcinoma. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2010;46:6669.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Elliott JW, Blackwood L. Treatment and outcome of four cats with apocrine gland carcinoma of the anal sac and review of the literature. J Feline Med Surg 2011;13:712717.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Shoieb AM, Hanshaw DM. Anal sac gland carcinoma in 64 cats in the United Kingdom (1995–2007). Vet Pathol 2009;46:677683.

  • 8. Braga LH, Farrokhyar F, Bhandari M. Confounding: what is it and how do we deal with it? Can J Surg 2012;55:132138.

  • 9. Hill PB, Lo A, Eden CA, et al. Survey of the prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of dermatological conditions in small animals in general practice. Vet Rec 2006;158:533539.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Williams LE, Gliatto JM, Dodge RK, et al. Carcinoma of the apocrine glands of the anal sac in dogs: 113 cases (1985–1995). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:825831.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Rosol TJ, Nagode LA, Couto CG, et al. Parathyroid hormone (PTH)–related protein, PTH, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in dogs with cancer-associated hypercalcemia. Endocrinology 1992;131:11571164.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Wouda RM, Borrego J, Keuler NS, et al. Evaluation of adjuvant carboplatin chemotherapy in the management of surgically excised anal sac apocrine gland adenocarcinoma in dogs. Vet Comp Oncol 2016;14:6780.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. McQuown B, Keyerleber MA, Rosen K, et al. Treatment of advanced canine anal sac adenocarcinoma with hypofractionated radiation therapy: 77 cases (1999–2013). Vet Comp Oncol 2017;15:840851.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Meier V, Polton G, Cancedda S, et al. Outcome in dogs with advanced (stage 3b) anal sac gland carcinoma treated with surgery or hypofractionated radiation therapy. Vet Comp Oncol 2017;15:10731086.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Turek MM, Forrest LJ, Adams WM, et al. Postoperative radiotherapy and mitoxantrone for anal sac adenocarcinoma in the dog: 15 cases (1991–2001). Vet Comp Oncol 2003;1:94104.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Bennett PF, DeNicola DB, Bonney P, et al. Canine anal sac adenocarcinomas: clinical presentation and response to therapy. J Vet Intern Med 2002;16:100104.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Emms SG. Anal sac tumours of the dog and their response to cytoreductive surgery and chemotherapy. Aust Vet J 2005;83:340343.

  • 18. Nucci DJ, Liptak JM, Selmic LE, et al. Complications and outcomes following rectal pull-through surgery in dogs with rectal masses: 74 cases (2000–2013). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2014;245:684695.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Ehrhart E, Kamstock D, Powers B. The pathology of neoplasia. In: Withrow SJ, Vail DM, Page RL, eds. Withrow and MacEwen's small animal clinical oncology. 5th ed. St Louis: Elsevier Saunders, 2013;5167.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. Santos M, Correia-Gomes C, Santos A, et al. Nuclear pleomorphism: role in grading and prognosis of canine mammary carcinomas. Vet J 2014;200:426433.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma in cats: 30 cases (1994–2015)

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Companion Animals, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE C1A 4P3, Canada
  • | 2 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610
  • | 3 Department of Companion Animals, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE C1A 4P3, Canada
  • | 4 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610
  • | 5 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610
  • | 6 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610
  • | 7 Southpaws Specialty Surgery for Animals Hospital and Consulting Suites, 3 Roper St, Moorabbin, VIC 3189, Australia
  • | 8 Alta Vista Animal Hospital, 2616 Bank St, Ottawa, ON K1T 1M9, Canada
  • | 9 Department of Clinical Sciences and Matthew J. Ryan Veterinary Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104
  • | 10 UW Veterinary Care, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706
  • | 11 Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To describe the signalment, clinical signs, biological behavior, and outcome for cats with apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma (AGASACA) that underwent surgical excision.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 30 client-owned cats.

PROCEDURES Databases of 13 Veterinary Society of Surgical Oncology member–affiliated institutions were searched for records of cats with a histologic diagnosis of AGASACA that underwent tumor excision. For each cat, information regarding signalment, clinical signs, diagnostic test results, treatment, and outcome was extracted from the medical record. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine median time to local recurrence (TLR), disease-free interval (DFI), and survival time. Cox regression was used to identify factors associated with TLR, DFI, and survival time.

RESULTS Perineal ulceration or discharge was the most common clinical sign in affected cats. Eleven cats developed local recurrence at a median of 96 days after AGASACA excision. Incomplete tumor margins and a high nuclear pleomorphic score were risk factors for local recurrence. Nuclear pleomorphic score was negatively associated with DFI. Local recurrence and a high nuclear pleomorphic score were risk factors for death. Median DFI and survival time were 234 and 260 days, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that, in cats, perineal ulceration or discharge should raise suspicion of AGASACA and prompt rectal and anal sac examinations. Local recurrence was the most common life-limiting event in cats that underwent surgery for treatment of AGASACA, suggesting that wide margins should be obtained whenever possible during AGASACA excision. Efficacy of chemotherapy and radiation therapy for treatment of cats with AGASACA requires further investigation. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2019;254:716–722)

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To describe the signalment, clinical signs, biological behavior, and outcome for cats with apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma (AGASACA) that underwent surgical excision.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 30 client-owned cats.

PROCEDURES Databases of 13 Veterinary Society of Surgical Oncology member–affiliated institutions were searched for records of cats with a histologic diagnosis of AGASACA that underwent tumor excision. For each cat, information regarding signalment, clinical signs, diagnostic test results, treatment, and outcome was extracted from the medical record. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine median time to local recurrence (TLR), disease-free interval (DFI), and survival time. Cox regression was used to identify factors associated with TLR, DFI, and survival time.

RESULTS Perineal ulceration or discharge was the most common clinical sign in affected cats. Eleven cats developed local recurrence at a median of 96 days after AGASACA excision. Incomplete tumor margins and a high nuclear pleomorphic score were risk factors for local recurrence. Nuclear pleomorphic score was negatively associated with DFI. Local recurrence and a high nuclear pleomorphic score were risk factors for death. Median DFI and survival time were 234 and 260 days, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that, in cats, perineal ulceration or discharge should raise suspicion of AGASACA and prompt rectal and anal sac examinations. Local recurrence was the most common life-limiting event in cats that underwent surgery for treatment of AGASACA, suggesting that wide margins should be obtained whenever possible during AGASACA excision. Efficacy of chemotherapy and radiation therapy for treatment of cats with AGASACA requires further investigation. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2019;254:716–722)

Contributor Notes

Dr. Amsellem's present address is Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108.

Dr. Cavanaugh's present address is Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Ross University, Basseterre, St Kitts and Nevis.

Drs. Chou and Culp's present address is Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.

Dr. Bacon's present addresses are Fitzpatrick Referrals—Oncology and Soft Tissue, 70 Priestley Rd, Guildford, GU2 7AJ, England; and Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH, England.

Dr. Schallberger's present address is Tierklinik Ts Ag, Burgerstrasse 11, CH-3600 Thun, Switzerland.

Dr. Farese's present address is North Bay Veterinary Surgical Services Inc, Kentfield, CA 94914.

Dr. Robat's present address is Veterinary Emergency Service/Veterinary Specialty Center, 1612 N High Point Rd, Middleton, WI 53562.

Address correspondence to Dr. Amsellem (amsellem@umn.edu).