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Outcomes and adverse effects associated with stereotactic body radiation therapy in dogs with nasal tumors: 28 cases (2011–2016)

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  • 1 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4, Canada.
  • | 2 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4, Canada.
  • | 3 Medical Physics, British Columbia Cancer, 1215 Lethbridge St, Prince George, BC V2M 7E9, Canada.
  • | 4 Western Veterinary Specialist and Emergency Centre, 1802 10 Ave SW, Calgary, AB T3C 0J8, Canada.
  • | 5 Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4, Canada.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To assess outcomes, factors associated with survival time, and radiation-induced toxicoses in dogs treated for nasal tumors with curative-intent stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT).

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 28 client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES By use of a 6-MV linear accelerator, dogs were treated with SBRT (3 consecutive-day fractions of 9 or 10 Gy or once with 1 fraction of 20 Gy). Data regarding adverse effects, outcomes, and survival times were obtained from the medical records.

RESULTS The median survival time to death due to any cause was 388 days. Of the 24 dogs known to be dead, 14 (58%) died or were euthanized because of local disease progression. Acute radiation-induced adverse effects developed in the skin (excluding alopecia) in 26% (6/23) of dogs and in the oral cavity in 30% (7/23) of dogs. Acute ocular adverse effects included discharge in 26% (6/23) of dogs and keratoconjunctivitis sicca in 4% (1/23) of dogs. Among the 22 dogs alive at > 6 months after SBRT, 4 (18%) developed a unilateral cataract; 4 (18%) developed other complications that may have been late-onset radiation toxicoses (excluding leukotrichia and skin hyperpigmentation).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that dogs treated with SBRT had outcomes comparable to those reported for dogs with nasal carcinomas and sarcomas that undergo conventionally fractionated radiation therapy. Administration of SBRT was associated with a comparatively lower frequency of acute radiation-induced adverse effects. For SBRT and conventionally fractionated radiation therapy, the frequencies of serious late-onset adverse effects appear similar.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To assess outcomes, factors associated with survival time, and radiation-induced toxicoses in dogs treated for nasal tumors with curative-intent stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT).

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 28 client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES By use of a 6-MV linear accelerator, dogs were treated with SBRT (3 consecutive-day fractions of 9 or 10 Gy or once with 1 fraction of 20 Gy). Data regarding adverse effects, outcomes, and survival times were obtained from the medical records.

RESULTS The median survival time to death due to any cause was 388 days. Of the 24 dogs known to be dead, 14 (58%) died or were euthanized because of local disease progression. Acute radiation-induced adverse effects developed in the skin (excluding alopecia) in 26% (6/23) of dogs and in the oral cavity in 30% (7/23) of dogs. Acute ocular adverse effects included discharge in 26% (6/23) of dogs and keratoconjunctivitis sicca in 4% (1/23) of dogs. Among the 22 dogs alive at > 6 months after SBRT, 4 (18%) developed a unilateral cataract; 4 (18%) developed other complications that may have been late-onset radiation toxicoses (excluding leukotrichia and skin hyperpigmentation).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that dogs treated with SBRT had outcomes comparable to those reported for dogs with nasal carcinomas and sarcomas that undergo conventionally fractionated radiation therapy. Administration of SBRT was associated with a comparatively lower frequency of acute radiation-induced adverse effects. For SBRT and conventionally fractionated radiation therapy, the frequencies of serious late-onset adverse effects appear similar.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Mauldin's present address is PetCure Oncology, 8770 W Bryn Mawr, Ste 1370, Chicago, IL 60631.

Address correspondence to Dr. Mayer (monique.mayer@usask.ca).