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Performance of two portable blood glucose meters for measuring blood glucose concentration in tigers (Panthera tigris) and lions (Panthera leo)

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  • 1 Veterinary Department, Zoo delle Star, Via Lambro, 20, 04011 Fossignano LT, Italy.
  • | 2 EBMVet, Via Sigismondo Trecchi 20, 26100 Cremona, Italy.
  • | 3 Tai Wai Small Animals & Exotics Hospital, 69–75 Chik Shun St, Tai Wai, Shatin, Sha Tin, Hong Kong.
  • | 4 Veterinary Department, Zoo delle Star, Via Lambro, 20, 04011 Fossignano LT, Italy.
  • | 5 Veterinary Service, Fasano Zoo, Via dello Zoosafari, 72015 Fasano (BR), Italy.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To investigate the performance of a portable blood glucose meter (PBGM) designed for use in humans (hPBGM) and a PBGM designed for use in dogs and cats (vPBGM) when measuring blood glucose (BG) concentration in tigers (Panthera tigris) and lions (Panthera leo).

DESIGN Method comparison and diagnostic accuracy study.

SAMPLES 53 blood samples from tigers (n = 27) and lions (26).

PROCEDURES BG concentration was measured with 2 identical hPBGMs, 2 identical vPBGMs, and a reference laboratory analyzer. Bland-Altman bias plots and Passing-Bablok regression analysis were used to assess agreement. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values with corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated for use in assessing diagnostic accuracy of the investigated PBGMs.

RESULTS Bias (95% limits of agreement) was −4.3 mg/dL (−46.3 to 37.6 mg/dL) for the hPBGM, −9.3 mg/dL (−64.6 to 46.0 mg/dL) for the vPBGM on canine setting, and 2.3 mg/dL (−47.9 to 52.6 mg/dL) for the vPBGM on feline setting. The hPBGM had better overall repeatability (coefficient of variation, 3.73%) than the vPBGM on canine (9.29%) or feline (9.44%) setting. Total error for the hPBGM, vPBGM on canine setting, and vPBGM on feline setting was 11.8%, 27.7%, and 20.9%, respectively. None of the PBGMs complied with the maximum allowable total error suggested by current guidelines when measuring BG in tigers and lions with hypo-, normo-, or hyperglycemia.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that the PBGMs evaluated were inadequate for measuring BG concentration in tigers and lions.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To investigate the performance of a portable blood glucose meter (PBGM) designed for use in humans (hPBGM) and a PBGM designed for use in dogs and cats (vPBGM) when measuring blood glucose (BG) concentration in tigers (Panthera tigris) and lions (Panthera leo).

DESIGN Method comparison and diagnostic accuracy study.

SAMPLES 53 blood samples from tigers (n = 27) and lions (26).

PROCEDURES BG concentration was measured with 2 identical hPBGMs, 2 identical vPBGMs, and a reference laboratory analyzer. Bland-Altman bias plots and Passing-Bablok regression analysis were used to assess agreement. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values with corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated for use in assessing diagnostic accuracy of the investigated PBGMs.

RESULTS Bias (95% limits of agreement) was −4.3 mg/dL (−46.3 to 37.6 mg/dL) for the hPBGM, −9.3 mg/dL (−64.6 to 46.0 mg/dL) for the vPBGM on canine setting, and 2.3 mg/dL (−47.9 to 52.6 mg/dL) for the vPBGM on feline setting. The hPBGM had better overall repeatability (coefficient of variation, 3.73%) than the vPBGM on canine (9.29%) or feline (9.44%) setting. Total error for the hPBGM, vPBGM on canine setting, and vPBGM on feline setting was 11.8%, 27.7%, and 20.9%, respectively. None of the PBGMs complied with the maximum allowable total error suggested by current guidelines when measuring BG in tigers and lions with hypo-, normo-, or hyperglycemia.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that the PBGMs evaluated were inadequate for measuring BG concentration in tigers and lions.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Capasso's present address is Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production, University of Naples Federico II, CREMOPAR Naples, Italy.

Dr. Di Girolamo's present address is Boren Veterinary Medical Hospital, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078.

Address correspondence to Dr. Di Girolamo (nicoladiggi@gmail.com).