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Short-, intermediate-, and long-term results for endoluminal stent placement in dogs with tracheal collapse

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  • 1 Interventional Radiology, Animal Medical Center, 510 E 62nd St, New York, NY 10065.
  • | 2 Interventional Radiology, Animal Medical Center, 510 E 62nd St, New York, NY 10065.
  • | 3 College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.
  • | 4 Interventional Radiology, Animal Medical Center, 510 E 62nd St, New York, NY 10065.
  • | 5 Lamb Statistical Consulting, West Saint Paul, MN 55118.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate outcomes following endoluminal stent placement for treatment of tracheal collapse (TC) in dogs.

DESIGN Retrospective case series with nested observational study.

ANIMALS 75 dogs that underwent endoluminal placement of a self-expanding metallic stent to treat TC between September 2009 and August 2015.

PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed to collect data on dog characteristics, clinical signs, TC type, diagnostic test results, peri- and postoperative complications, and outcomes. Complication rates and survival times and rates were compared between various groups.

RESULTS The 75 dogs received 119 stents (56% [42/75] received 1 stent and 44% [33/75] received ≥ 2 stents). Thirty-eight (51%) dogs had a malformation type of TC, and 37 (49%) had the traditional type. Ninety-three percent (70/75) of dogs survived to hospital discharge. Median survival time was 1,005 days. Improvement in goose-honking or raspy breathing (89% [42/47]) and dyspnea (84% [43/51]) was reported at final follow-up examination. Major complications requiring additional stent placement procedures occurred in 47% (33/70) of dogs over the follow-up period; stent fracture and tissue ingrowth were the most common types. Male dogs and younger dogs had a significantly longer survival time than other dogs. Mainstem bronchial collapse at the time of stent placement had no significant association with outcome.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Endoluminal stent placement provided a high survival rate for dogs with TC, even those with severe clinical signs. This information, as well as the information on potential complications, should be useful for advising owners of affected dogs.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate outcomes following endoluminal stent placement for treatment of tracheal collapse (TC) in dogs.

DESIGN Retrospective case series with nested observational study.

ANIMALS 75 dogs that underwent endoluminal placement of a self-expanding metallic stent to treat TC between September 2009 and August 2015.

PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed to collect data on dog characteristics, clinical signs, TC type, diagnostic test results, peri- and postoperative complications, and outcomes. Complication rates and survival times and rates were compared between various groups.

RESULTS The 75 dogs received 119 stents (56% [42/75] received 1 stent and 44% [33/75] received ≥ 2 stents). Thirty-eight (51%) dogs had a malformation type of TC, and 37 (49%) had the traditional type. Ninety-three percent (70/75) of dogs survived to hospital discharge. Median survival time was 1,005 days. Improvement in goose-honking or raspy breathing (89% [42/47]) and dyspnea (84% [43/51]) was reported at final follow-up examination. Major complications requiring additional stent placement procedures occurred in 47% (33/70) of dogs over the follow-up period; stent fracture and tissue ingrowth were the most common types. Male dogs and younger dogs had a significantly longer survival time than other dogs. Mainstem bronchial collapse at the time of stent placement had no significant association with outcome.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Endoluminal stent placement provided a high survival rate for dogs with TC, even those with severe clinical signs. This information, as well as the information on potential complications, should be useful for advising owners of affected dogs.

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary Table S1 (PDF 94 kb)
    • Supplementary Table S2 (PDF 87 kb)

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Weisse (Chick.Weisse@gmail.com).