Comparison of body condition score and other minimally invasive biomarkers between dogs with gastric carcinoma and dogs with chronic gastritis

Tonje Seim-Wikse Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 1870 Frederiksberg, Denmark.
Department of Companion Animal Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Biosciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 0454 Oslo, Norway.

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Ellen Skancke Department of Companion Animal Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Biosciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 0454 Oslo, Norway.

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Ane Nødtvedt Department of Production Animal Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Biosciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 0454 Oslo, Norway.

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Einar Jörundsson Department of Basic Sciences and Aquatic Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Biosciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 0454 Oslo, Norway.

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Tom Grotmol Department of Companion Animal Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Biosciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 0454 Oslo, Norway.
Cancer Registry of Norway, Ullernchausseen 64, 0379 Oslo, Norway.

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Annemarie T. Kristensen Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 1870 Frederiksberg, Denmark.

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Charlotte R. Bjørnvad Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 1870 Frederiksberg, Denmark.

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To identify minimally invasive biomarkers to help differentiate dogs with gastric carcinoma from those with chronic gastritis.

DESIGN Prospective study.

ANIMALS 15 dogs with gastric carcinoma, 29 dogs with chronic gastritis, and 7 healthy dogs.

PROCEDURES Dogs with clinical signs of upper gastrointestinal tract disease for > 14 days that underwent gastroscopy or necropsy for collection of gastric biopsy specimens for histologic evaluation were prospectively enrolled. Gastric carcinoma and chronic gastritis were diagnosed on the basis of histologic findings. Additionally, gastric biopsy specimens were collected endoscopically from 7 healthy (control) dogs while they were anesthetized for a routine neutering procedure. Prior to being anesthetized for gastroscopy or euthanized, all dogs underwent a physical examination, and a blood sample was collected for quantification of select serum biomarker concentrations. Histologic findings, body condition score (BCS), and serum biomarker concentrations were compared among the 3 groups.

RESULTS Dogs with gastric carcinoma were significantly older and had a significantly lower BCS, lower serum folate concentration, and greater serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration, compared with dogs with chronic gastritis and control dogs.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that age > 8 years, BCS < 4, serum CRP concentration > 25 mg/L, and an abnormally low serum folate concentration might be useful noninvasive biomarkers for identification of dogs with gastric carcinoma. For underweight older dogs with signs of upper gastrointestinal tract disease and high serum CRP and low serum folate concentrations, gastric biopsy specimens should be obtained and evaluated so that a prompt definitive diagnosis can be made and appropriate treatment initiated.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To identify minimally invasive biomarkers to help differentiate dogs with gastric carcinoma from those with chronic gastritis.

DESIGN Prospective study.

ANIMALS 15 dogs with gastric carcinoma, 29 dogs with chronic gastritis, and 7 healthy dogs.

PROCEDURES Dogs with clinical signs of upper gastrointestinal tract disease for > 14 days that underwent gastroscopy or necropsy for collection of gastric biopsy specimens for histologic evaluation were prospectively enrolled. Gastric carcinoma and chronic gastritis were diagnosed on the basis of histologic findings. Additionally, gastric biopsy specimens were collected endoscopically from 7 healthy (control) dogs while they were anesthetized for a routine neutering procedure. Prior to being anesthetized for gastroscopy or euthanized, all dogs underwent a physical examination, and a blood sample was collected for quantification of select serum biomarker concentrations. Histologic findings, body condition score (BCS), and serum biomarker concentrations were compared among the 3 groups.

RESULTS Dogs with gastric carcinoma were significantly older and had a significantly lower BCS, lower serum folate concentration, and greater serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration, compared with dogs with chronic gastritis and control dogs.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that age > 8 years, BCS < 4, serum CRP concentration > 25 mg/L, and an abnormally low serum folate concentration might be useful noninvasive biomarkers for identification of dogs with gastric carcinoma. For underweight older dogs with signs of upper gastrointestinal tract disease and high serum CRP and low serum folate concentrations, gastric biopsy specimens should be obtained and evaluated so that a prompt definitive diagnosis can be made and appropriate treatment initiated.

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