• 1. Zaldívar-López S, Marín LM, Iazbik MC, et al. Clinical pathology of Greyhounds and other sighthounds. Vet Clin Pathol 2011;40:414425.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Marino CL, Cober RE, Iazbik MC, et al. White-coat effect on systemic blood pressure in retired racing Greyhounds. J Vet Intern Med 2011;25:861865.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Nelson RW, Delaney SJ. Electrolyte imbalances. In: Nelson RW, Couto CG, eds. Small animal internal medicine. 5th ed. St Louis: Elsevier Inc, 2014;877896.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Feldman E, Church D. Electrolyte disorders: potassium (hyper/hypokalemia). In: Ettinger SJ, Feldman EC, eds. Textbook of veterinary internal medicine. 7th ed. St Louis: Saunders-Elsevier, 2010;303306.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Mathews KA. Veterinary emergency and critical care manual. 2nd ed. Guelph, Ontario, Canada: Lifelearn Inc, 2006;396399.

  • 6. Church S. Hyperkalaemic periodic paralysis in Australian Quarter Horses. Aust Vet J 1995;72:314316.

  • 7. Carpenter RE, Evans AT. Anesthesia case of the month. Hyperkalemia. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:874876.

  • 8. Cox JH. Hyperkalaemic periodic paralysis: diagnosing the disease in the headlines. Equine Vet J 1993;25:174177.

  • 9. Fischer B, Clark-Price S. Anesthesia of the equine neonate in health and disease. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 2015;31:567585.

  • 10. Naylor JM, Jones V, Berry SL. Clinical syndrome and diagnosis of hyperkalaemic periodic paralysis in Quarter Horses. Equine Vet J 1993;25:227232.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Naylor JM. Equine hyperkalemic periodic paralysis: review and implications. Can Vet J 1994;35:279285.

  • 12. Naylor JM, Nickel DD, Trimino G, et al. Hyperkalaemic periodic paralysis in homozygous and heterozygous horses: a codominant genetic condition. Equine Vet J 1999;31:153159.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Jezyk PF. Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis in a dog. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1982;18:977980.

  • 14. Schaer M, Halling KB, Collins KE, et al. Combined hyponatremia and hyperkalemia mimicking acute hypoadrenocorticism in three pregnant dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:897899.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Kirmayer AH, Klide AM, Purvance JE. Malignant hyperthermia in a dog: case report and review of the syndrome. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1984;185:978982.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Bagshaw RJ, Cox RH, Knight DH, et al. Malignant hyperthermia in a Greyhound. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1978;172:6162.

  • 17. Leary SL, Anderson LC, Manning PJ, et al. Recurrent malignant hyperthermia in a Greyhound. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1983;182:521522.

  • 18. Cosgrove SB, Eisele PH, Martucci RW, et al. Evaluation of Greyhound susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia using halothane-succinylcholine anesthesia and caffeine-halothane muscle contractures. Lab Anim Sci 1992;42:482485.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Chohan AS, Greene SA. Anesthesia case of the month. Malignant hyperthermia. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2011;239:936940.

  • 20. Rose RJ, Bloomberg MS. Responses to sprint exercise in the greyhound: effects on haematology, serum biochemistry and muscle metabolites. Res Vet Sci 1989;47:212218.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. Henegan T. Haematological and biochemical variables in the Greyhound. Vet Res Commun 1977;1:277284.

  • 22. Ilkiw JE, Davis PE, Church DB. Hematologic, biochemical, blood-gas, and acid-base values in Greyhounds before and after exercise. Am J Vet Res 1989;50:583586.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23. Lassen ED, Craig AM, Blythe LL. Effects of racing on hematologic and serum biochemical values in Greyhounds. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1986;188:12991303.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. Nold JL, Peterson LJ, Fedde MR. Physiological changes in the running greyhound (Canis domesticus): influence of race length. Comp Biochem Physiol A 1991;100:623627.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25. Snow DH, Harris RC, Stuttard E. Changes in haematology and plasma biochemistry during maximal exercise in Greyhounds. Vet Rec 1988;123:487489.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26. Martinez J, Kellogg C, Iazbik MC, et al. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in Greyhounds and non-Greyhound dogs. J Vet Intern Med 2017;31:988993.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27. Reilly S, Seddighi MR, Steeil JC, et al. Selected clinical, biochemical, and electrolyte alterations in anesthetized captive tigers (Panthera tigris) and lions (Panthera leo). J Zoo Wildl Med 2014;45:328334.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28. Mali AR, Patil VP, Pramesh CS, et al. Hyperkalemia during surgery: is it an early warning of propofol infusion syndrome? J Anesth 2009;23:421423.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29. Zhou ZB, Yang XY, Zhou X, et al. Propofol-induced rhabdomyolysis: a case report. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2015; 53:890894.

  • 30. Berry SH. Injectable anesthesia. In: Grimm KA, Lamont LA, Tranquilli WJ, et al, eds. Veterinary anesthesia and analgesia. 5th ed. Ames, Iowa: John Wiley & Sons Inc, 2015;277296.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31. Greyhound Articles Online. High potassium during anesthesia causes sudden Greyhound death. Available at: greytarticles.wordpress.com/medical-first-aid/anesthesia-surgical/high-potassium-during-anesthesia-causes-Greyhound-sudden-death/. Accessed Nov 14, 2017.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32. Cunha MG, Freitas GC, Carregaro AB, et al. Renal and cardiorespiratory effects of treatment with lactated Ringer's solution or physiologic saline (0.9% NaCl) solution in cats with experimentally induced urethral obstruction. Am J Vet Res 2010;71:840846.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Hyperkalemia during general anesthesia in two Greyhounds

View More View Less
  • 1 1Caring Hands Veterinary Hospital, 13741 Colorado Blvd, Thornton, CO 80602.
  • | 2 2Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.
  • | 3 3Nancy Brock Veterinary Services, 514 Harvey Rd, Gibsons, BC V0N 1V1, Canada.
  • | 4 4Couto Veterinary Consultants, Hilliard, OH 43026.

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

A 36-kg (79-lb) castrated male Greyhound (dog 1) and a 25-kg (55 lb) spayed female Greyhound (dog 2) underwent general anesthesia for dental care with similar perianesthetic protocols on multiple occasions from 2013 to 2016. Both dogs had periodontal disease but were otherwise deemed healthy. Both dogs developed clinically relevant hyperkalemia, with signs including loss of P waves on ECG tracings, during multiple anesthetic events.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

Dog 1 developed hyperkalemia during 2 of 2 anesthetic events, with ECG changes noted during the first event. Dog 2 developed hyperkalemia during 3 of 4 anesthetic events, with ECG changes identified during the second and third events. Serum potassium concentration for both dogs was within the reference range prior to and between anesthetic events. No underlying etiopathogenesis for hyperkalemia was identified for either dog.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

In each hyperkalemic event, the clinician stopped the dental procedure and continued to provide supportive care and monitoring while the dog recovered from anesthesia. The ECG changes resolved, and serum potassium concentration returned to the reference range rapidly after inhalant anesthetic administration was discontinued. The dogs were discharged from the hospital without further complications.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Hyperkalemia in anesthetized Greyhounds resulted in serious cardiac conduction abnormalities, which could be potentially fatal if not recognized and promptly treated. Further investigation into the etiopathogenesis, prevention and treatment strategies, and genetic or familial components of this condition is indicated.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Jones (chvhmail@gmail.com).