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Survival estimates and outcome predictors for shelter cats with feline panleukopenia virus infection

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  • 1 Istituto Veterinario di Novara, 28060 Granozzo con Monticello (NO), Italy.
  • | 2 Former Institute of Virology, Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Veterinary Faculty, Utrecht University, Yalelaan I, 3584 CL Utrecht, Netherlands.
  • | 3 Clinical Laboratory, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland.
  • | 4 Istituto Veterinario di Novara, 28060 Granozzo con Monticello (NO), Italy.
  • | 5 Department of Animal Medicine, Production and Health, University of Padova, 35020 Legnaro (PD), Italy.
  • | 6 Department of Animal Medicine, Production and Health, University of Padova, 35020 Legnaro (PD), Italy.
  • | 7 Istituto Veterinario di Novara, 28060 Granozzo con Monticello (NO), Italy.
  • | 8 Istituto Veterinario di Novara, 28060 Granozzo con Monticello (NO), Italy.
  • | 9 Istituto Veterinario di Novara, 28060 Granozzo con Monticello (NO), Italy.
  • | 10 Clinical Laboratory, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland.
  • | 11 Istituto Veterinario di Novara, 28060 Granozzo con Monticello (NO), Italy.
  • | 12 Department of Animal Medicine, Production and Health, University of Padova, 35020 Legnaro (PD), Italy.
  • | 13 Clinic for Small Animal Internal Medicine, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine survival estimates and outcome predictors for shelter cats with feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) infection.

DESIGN Retrospective cohort study.

ANIMALS 177 shelter cats with FPV infection.

PROCEDURES Medical records of cats treated for FPV infection from 2011 through 2013 were reviewed to collect information pertaining to signalment; history; results of physical examination, CBC, serum biochemical analysis, and blood gas analysis; and treatments (antimicrobials, antiparasitics, antivirals, antiemetics, analgesics, crystalloid or colloid solutions, and blood products). Survival time and outcome predictors were determined by means of Kaplan-Meier estimation, logistic regression, and mixed-model ANOVA.

RESULTS Median survival time after hospital admission was 3 days; 20.3% (36/177) of cats survived to discharge from the hospital. Risk of nonsurvival was greater in cats with (vs without) signs of lethargy, rectal temperature < 37.9°C (I00.2°F), or low body weight at hospital admission. Lower (vs higher) leukocyte count on days 3,4, and 7 of hospitalization, but not at admission, was associated with nonsurvival. Amoxicillin–clavulanic acid, antiparasitics, and maropitant but not interferon-ω were associated with survival, whereas glucose infusion was associated with nonsurvival.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that FPV infection carried a poor prognosis for shelter cats. Several variables measured at admission or during hospitalization were associated with outcome. Remarkably and contrary to the existing literature, leukopenia at admission had no association with outcome, possibly owing to early prevention of complications.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine survival estimates and outcome predictors for shelter cats with feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) infection.

DESIGN Retrospective cohort study.

ANIMALS 177 shelter cats with FPV infection.

PROCEDURES Medical records of cats treated for FPV infection from 2011 through 2013 were reviewed to collect information pertaining to signalment; history; results of physical examination, CBC, serum biochemical analysis, and blood gas analysis; and treatments (antimicrobials, antiparasitics, antivirals, antiemetics, analgesics, crystalloid or colloid solutions, and blood products). Survival time and outcome predictors were determined by means of Kaplan-Meier estimation, logistic regression, and mixed-model ANOVA.

RESULTS Median survival time after hospital admission was 3 days; 20.3% (36/177) of cats survived to discharge from the hospital. Risk of nonsurvival was greater in cats with (vs without) signs of lethargy, rectal temperature < 37.9°C (I00.2°F), or low body weight at hospital admission. Lower (vs higher) leukocyte count on days 3,4, and 7 of hospitalization, but not at admission, was associated with nonsurvival. Amoxicillin–clavulanic acid, antiparasitics, and maropitant but not interferon-ω were associated with survival, whereas glucose infusion was associated with nonsurvival.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that FPV infection carried a poor prognosis for shelter cats. Several variables measured at admission or during hospitalization were associated with outcome. Remarkably and contrary to the existing literature, leukopenia at admission had no association with outcome, possibly owing to early prevention of complications.

Contributor Notes

Deceased.

Address correspondence to Dr. Porporato (federico.porporato@istitutoveterinarionovara.it).