• 1 Alleman AR. Abdominal, thoracic, and pericardial effusions. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2003;33:89118.

  • 2 Dempsey SM, Ewing PJ. A review of the pathophysiology, classification, and analysis of canine and feline cavitary effusions. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2011;47:111.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3 Beatty J, Barrs V. Pleural effusion in the cat: a practical approach to determining aetiology. J Feline Med Surg 2010;12:693707.

  • 4 Epstein SE. Exudative pleural diseases in small animals. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2014;44:161180.

  • 5 Davies C, Forrester SD. Pleural effusion in cats: 82 cases (1987 to 1995). J Small Anim Pract 1996;37:217224.

  • 6 Gruffydd-Jones TJ, Flecknell PA. The prognosis and treatment related to the gross appearance and laboratory characteristics of pathological thoracic fluids in the cat. J Small Anim Pract 1978;19:315328.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7 Zoia A, Slater LA, Heller J, et al. A new approach to pleural effusion in cats: markers for distinguishing transudates from exudates. J Feline Med Surg 2009;11:847855.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8 Hirschberger J, DeNicola DB, Hermanns W, et al. Sensitivity and specificity of cytologic evaluation in the diagnosis of neoplasia in body fluids from dogs and cats. Vet Clin Pathol 1999;28:142146.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9 Louwerens M, London CA, Pedersen NC, et al. Feline lymphoma in the post-feline leukemia virus era. J Vet Intern Med 2005;19:329335.

  • 10 Waddle JR, Giger U. Lipoprotein electrophoresis differentiation of chylous and nonchylous pleural effusions in dogs and cats and its correlation with pleural effusion triglyceride concentration. Vet Clin Pathol 1990;19:8085.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11 Smith SA, Tobias AH, Fine DM, et al. Corticosteroid-associated congestive heart failure in 12 cats. Int J Appl Res Vet Med 2004;2:159170.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12 Langhorn R, Tarnow I, Willesen JL, et al. Cardiac troponin I and T as prognostic markers in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Vet Intern Med 2014;28:14851491.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13 Rush JE, Freeman LM, Fenollosa NK, et al. Population and survival characteristics of cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: 260 cases (1990–1999). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:202207.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14 Smith S, Dukes-McEwan J. Clinical signs and left atrial size in cats with cardiovascular disease in general practice. J Small Anim Pract 2012;53:2733.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15 Payne JR, Borgeat K, Connolly DJ, et al. Prognostic indicators in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Vet Intern Med 2013;27:14271436.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16 Broussard JD, Peterson ME, Fox PR. Changes in clinical and laboratory findings in cats with hyperthyroidism from 1983 to 1993. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1995;206:302305.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17 Fossum TW, Forrester SD, Swenson CL, et al. Chylothorax in cats: 37 cases (1969–1989). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1991;198:672678.

  • 18 Barrs VR, Allan GS, Martin P, et al. Feline pyothorax: a retrospective study of 27 cases in Australia. J Feline Med Surg 2005;7:211222.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19 Payvar S, Spertus JA, Miller AB, et al. Association of low body temperature and poor outcomes in patients admitted with worsening heart failure: a substudy of the Efficacy of Vasopressin Antagonism in Heart Failure Outcome Study with Tolvaptan (EVEREST) trial. Eur J Heart Fail 2013;15:13821389.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20 Borgeat K, Weight J, Garrod O, et al. Arterial thromboembolism in 250 cats in general practice: 2004–2012. J Vet Intern Med 2014;28:102108.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21 Hall DJ, Shofer F, Meier CK, et al. Pericardial effusion in cats: a retrospective study of clinical findings and outcome in 146 cats. J Vet Intern Med 2007;21:10021007.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22 Davidson BJ, Paling AC, Lahmers SL, et al. Disease association and clinical assessment of feline pericardial effusion. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2008;44:59.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23 Rush JE, Keene BW, Fox PR. Pericardial disease in the cat: a retrospective evaluation of 66 cases. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1990;26:3946.

Advertisement

Characterization of and factors associated with causes of pleural effusion in cats

View More View Less
  • 1 Veterinary Hospital Center Frégis, 43 Ave Aristide Briand, 94110 Arcueil, France
  • | 2 Veterinary Hospital Center Frégis, 43 Ave Aristide Briand, 94110 Arcueil, France
  • | 3 Veterinary Hospital Center Frégis, 43 Ave Aristide Briand, 94110 Arcueil, France
  • | 4 Veterinary Hospital Center Frégis, 43 Ave Aristide Briand, 94110 Arcueil, France

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To characterize and investigate potential associations between causes of pleural effusion and various clinical factors in a large cohort of affected cats.

DESIGN Retrospective case series with nested cross-sectional study.

ANIMALS 380 client-owned cats with a diagnosis of pleural effusion from January 1, 2009, through July 14, 2014, for which the cause of pleural effusion had been fully investigated.

PROCEDURES Electronic medical records were reviewed and data collected regarding cat characteristics, clinical signs, cause of pleural effusion, treatment, and survival status at discharge from the hospital. Variables were examined for associations with causes of pleural effusion.

RESULTS 87 (22.9%) cats died or were euthanized before discharge from the hospital. Congestive heart failure (CHF) was the most common cause (155 [40.8%]) of pleural effusion, followed by neoplasia (98 [25.8%]). Other causes included pyothorax, idiopathic chylothorax, trauma, feline infectious peritonitis, and nontraumatic diaphragmatic hernia. Cats with trauma or feline infectious peritonitis were significantly younger than those with CHF or neoplasia. Cats with lymphoma were significantly younger than those with carcinoma. Cats with CHF had a significantly lower rectal temperature at hospital admission (mean ± SD, 36.9 ± 1.2°C [98.4 ± 2.2°F]) than did cats with pleural effusion from other causes (37.9 ± 1.2°C [100.2 ± 2.2°F]).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Cats with pleural effusion in this study had a poor prognosis; CHF and neoplasia were common causes. Age and hypothermia may be helpful to raise the index of suspicion for certain underlying causes of pleural effusion in cats.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To characterize and investigate potential associations between causes of pleural effusion and various clinical factors in a large cohort of affected cats.

DESIGN Retrospective case series with nested cross-sectional study.

ANIMALS 380 client-owned cats with a diagnosis of pleural effusion from January 1, 2009, through July 14, 2014, for which the cause of pleural effusion had been fully investigated.

PROCEDURES Electronic medical records were reviewed and data collected regarding cat characteristics, clinical signs, cause of pleural effusion, treatment, and survival status at discharge from the hospital. Variables were examined for associations with causes of pleural effusion.

RESULTS 87 (22.9%) cats died or were euthanized before discharge from the hospital. Congestive heart failure (CHF) was the most common cause (155 [40.8%]) of pleural effusion, followed by neoplasia (98 [25.8%]). Other causes included pyothorax, idiopathic chylothorax, trauma, feline infectious peritonitis, and nontraumatic diaphragmatic hernia. Cats with trauma or feline infectious peritonitis were significantly younger than those with CHF or neoplasia. Cats with lymphoma were significantly younger than those with carcinoma. Cats with CHF had a significantly lower rectal temperature at hospital admission (mean ± SD, 36.9 ± 1.2°C [98.4 ± 2.2°F]) than did cats with pleural effusion from other causes (37.9 ± 1.2°C [100.2 ± 2.2°F]).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Cats with pleural effusion in this study had a poor prognosis; CHF and neoplasia were common causes. Age and hypothermia may be helpful to raise the index of suspicion for certain underlying causes of pleural effusion in cats.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Hernandez's present address is Internal Medicine Service, Department of Clinical Sciences, Oniris, Université Bretagne Loire, Nantes 44307, France.

Address correspondence to Dr. Hernandez (juan.hernandez@oniris-nantes.fr).