• 1. Rijnberk A, Elsinghorst TA, Koeman JP, et al. Pseudohyperparathyroidism associated with perirectal adenocarcinomas in elderly female dogs. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 1978;103:10691075.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Meuten DJ, Cooper BJ, Capen CC, et al. Hypercalcemia associated with an adenocarcinoma derived from the apocrine glands of the anal sac. Vet Pathol 1981;18:454471.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Ross JT, Scavelli TD, Matthiesen DT, et al. Adenocarcinoma of the apocrine glands of the anal sac in dogs: a review of 32 cases. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1991;27:349355.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Bennett PF, DeNicola DB, Bonney P, et al. Canine anal sac adenocarcinomas: clinical presentation and response to therapy. J Vet Intern Med 2002;16:100104.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Goldschmidt MH, Zoltowski C. Anal sac gland adenocarcinoma in the dog: 14 cases. J Small Anim Pract 1981;22:119128.

  • 6. Williams LE, Gliatto JM, Dodge RK, et al. Carcinoma of the apocrine glands of the anal sac in dogs: 113 cases (1985–1995). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:825831.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Polton GA, Brearley MJ. Clinical stage, therapy, and prognosis in canine anal sac gland carcinoma. J Vet Intern Med 2007;21:274280.

  • 8. Potanas CP, Padgett S, Gamblin RM. Surgical excision of anal sac apocrine gland adenocarcinomas with and without adjunctive chemotherapy in dogs: 42 cases (2005–2011). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015;246:877884.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Suzuki K, Morita R, Hojo Y, et al. Immunohistochemical characterization of neuroendocrine differentiation in canine anal sac glandular tumors. J Comp Pathol 2013;149:199207.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Polton GA, Brearley MJ, Green LM, et al. Expression of E-cadherin in canine anal sac gland carcinoma and its association with survival. Vet Comp Oncol 2007;5:232238.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Dennis MM, McSporran KD, Bacon NJ, et al. Prognostic factors for cutaneous and subcutaneous soft tissue sarcomas in dogs. Vet Pathol 2011;48:7384.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Pereira RS, Schweigert A, Dias de Melo G, et al. Ki-67 labeling in canine perianal glands neoplasms: a novel approach for immunohistological diagnostic and prognostic. BMC Vet Res 2013;9:83.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Kamstock DA, Ehrhart EJ, Getzy DM, et al. Recommended guidelines for submission, trimming, margin evaluation, and reporting of tumor biopsy specimens in veterinary surgical pathology. Vet Pathol 2011;48:1931.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Restucci B, Martano MDE, Vico G, et al. Expression of E-cadherin, β-catenin and APC protein in canine colorectal tumors. Anticancer Res 2009;29:29192925.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Gama A, Paredes J, Gärtner F, et al. Expression of E-cadherin, P-cadherin and β-catenin in canine malignant mammary tumors in relation to clinicopathological parameters, proliferation and survival. Vet J 2008;177:4553.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. van Roy F. Beyond E-cadherin: roles of other cadherin super-family members in cancer. Nat Rev Cancer 2014;14:121134.

  • 17. Peña LL, Nieto AI, Pérez-Alenza D, et al. Immunohistochemical detection of Ki-67 and PNCA in canine mammary tumors: relationship to clinical and pathologic variables. J Vet Diagn Invest 1998;10:237246.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Berlato D, Murphy S, Monti P, et al. Comparison of mitotic index and Ki67 index in the prognostication of canine cutaneous mast cell tumors. Vet Comp Oncol 2015;13:143150.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Kontzoglou K, Palla V, Karaolanis G, et al. Correlation between Ki67 and breast cancer prognosis. Oncology 2013;84:219225.

  • 20. Jakobsen JN, Sørensen JB. Clinical impact of ki-67 labeling index in non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer 2013;79:17.

Advertisement

Outcome and clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemical factors associated with prognosis for dogs with early-stage anal sac adenocarcinoma treated with surgery alone: 34 cases (2002–2013)

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Veterinary Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 2 Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 3 Centre Vétérinaire Rive-Sud, 7415 Taschereau Blvd, Brossard, QC J4Y 1A2, Canada.
  • | 4 Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 5 Department of Veterinary Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 6 Department of Veterinary Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine survival time and metastatic rate for dogs with early-stage anal sac adenocarcinoma (ASACA) treated with surgery alone and assess whether specific clinical, pathological, or immunohistochemical factors were predictive of outcome for those dogs.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 34 dogs with early-stage, nonmetastatic ASACA that were treated with surgery only.

PROCEDURES Medical record databases of 2 referral hospitals were searched to identify dogs examined between 2002 and 2013 that had a diagnosis of nonmetastatic ASACA that was < 3.2 cm at its largest diameter. Only dogs that received surgical treatment alone were included in the study. For each dog, information extracted from the medical record included signalment, clinical and diagnostic test findings, tumor characteristics, and outcome. When available, archived tumor specimens were histologically reviewed and tumor characteristics were described; Ki-67 and E-cadherin expressions were evaluated by use of immunohistochemical methods. Clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemical factors were assessed for associations with survival time and tumor recurrence and metastasis rates.

RESULTS Median survival time was 1,237 days. Seven dogs had tumor recurrence and 9 dogs developed metastatic disease at a median of 354 and 589 days, respectively, after primary tumor removal. Cellular pleomorphism was positively associated with development of metastatic disease. No other factors evaluated were associated with outcome.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated dogs with early-stage nonmetastatic ASACA generally had a favorable outcome following surgical removal of the primary tumor alone. Routine rectal examination may be a simple and useful method for detection of dogs with early-stage ASACA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine survival time and metastatic rate for dogs with early-stage anal sac adenocarcinoma (ASACA) treated with surgery alone and assess whether specific clinical, pathological, or immunohistochemical factors were predictive of outcome for those dogs.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 34 dogs with early-stage, nonmetastatic ASACA that were treated with surgery only.

PROCEDURES Medical record databases of 2 referral hospitals were searched to identify dogs examined between 2002 and 2013 that had a diagnosis of nonmetastatic ASACA that was < 3.2 cm at its largest diameter. Only dogs that received surgical treatment alone were included in the study. For each dog, information extracted from the medical record included signalment, clinical and diagnostic test findings, tumor characteristics, and outcome. When available, archived tumor specimens were histologically reviewed and tumor characteristics were described; Ki-67 and E-cadherin expressions were evaluated by use of immunohistochemical methods. Clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemical factors were assessed for associations with survival time and tumor recurrence and metastasis rates.

RESULTS Median survival time was 1,237 days. Seven dogs had tumor recurrence and 9 dogs developed metastatic disease at a median of 354 and 589 days, respectively, after primary tumor removal. Cellular pleomorphism was positively associated with development of metastatic disease. No other factors evaluated were associated with outcome.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated dogs with early-stage nonmetastatic ASACA generally had a favorable outcome following surgical removal of the primary tumor alone. Routine rectal examination may be a simple and useful method for detection of dogs with early-stage ASACA.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Alarcón's present address is Biomedical Sciences Program, University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093. Dr. LaDouceur's present address is Joint Pathology Center, 606 Stephen Sitter Ave, Silver Spring, MD 20910. Dr. Rodriguez's present address is Vista Veterinary Specialists, 7425 Greenhaven Dr, Sacramento, CA 95831.

Address correspondence to Dr. Skorupski (kskorups@ucdavis.edu).