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Oral and dental anomalies in purebred, brachycephalic Persian and Exotic cats

Lisa A. Mestrinho DVM, PhD1, João M. Louro DVM, MS2, Iněs S. Gordo DVM, MS3, Maria M. R. E. Niza DVM, PhD4, João F. Requicha DVM, PhD5, Judith G. Force DVM6, and Jerzy P. Gawor DVM, PhD7
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  • 1 Centro de Investigación Interdisciplinaria en Salud Animal (CIISA), Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida da Universidade Técnica, 1300-477 Lisboa, Portugal.
  • | 2 Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University Lusófona, Avenida do Campo Grande, 1749-024 Lisboa, Portugal.
  • | 3 Pride Veterinary Centre, Riverside Rd, Derby DE24 8HX, England.
  • | 4 Centro de Investigación Interdisciplinaria en Salud Animal (CIISA), Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida da Universidade Técnica, 1300-477 Lisboa, Portugal.
  • | 5 Research Centre for Biosciences and Health Technologies (CBIOS), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, Avenida do Campo Grande, 1749-024 Lisboa, Portugal.
  • | 6 Dentistry for Animals, 8035 Soquel Dr, Aptos, CA 95003.
  • | 7 Klinika Weterynaryjna Arka, Chlopska 2 30-806 Krakov, Poland.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of dental anomalies in brachycephalic cats from various geographic regions and analyze potential relationships with oral disease.

DESIGN Prospective multicenter cross-sectional study.

ANIMALS 50 purebred Persian (n = 42) and Exotic (8) cats.

PROCEDURES Cats were anesthetized, and a complete dental examination, dental charting, 3-view oral photography, and full-mouth dental radiography were performed.

RESULTS Malocclusions were observed in 36 (72%) cats. Crowding of the teeth was evident in 28 (56%) cats, with the incisors being most commonly affected. Malpositioned teeth were noted in 32 (64%) cats, with abnormal orientation being the most common anomaly followed by rotation and impaction. Numerical abnormalities were present in 38 (76%) cats, including 6 (12%) with hyperdontia and 32 (64%) with hypodontia. Periodontal disease was reported in 44 (88%) cats, and cats with periodontal disease were older than cats without. Tooth resorption was evident in 35 (70%) cats. Overall, 123 of 1,349 (8.7%) teeth had external inflammatory resorption and 82 (6.1%) had external replacement resorption. The premolar teeth were the teeth most commonly affected with inflammatory resorption, whereas the canine teeth were the teeth most commonly affected with replacement resorption.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that because of their brachycephaly, Persian and Exotic cats have unique oral and dental features that may predispose them to dental disease (eg, tooth resorption and periodontal disease). Knowledge of the particular dental anomalies common in brachycephalic cats could aid in early detection and mitigation of dental disease in these breeds.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of dental anomalies in brachycephalic cats from various geographic regions and analyze potential relationships with oral disease.

DESIGN Prospective multicenter cross-sectional study.

ANIMALS 50 purebred Persian (n = 42) and Exotic (8) cats.

PROCEDURES Cats were anesthetized, and a complete dental examination, dental charting, 3-view oral photography, and full-mouth dental radiography were performed.

RESULTS Malocclusions were observed in 36 (72%) cats. Crowding of the teeth was evident in 28 (56%) cats, with the incisors being most commonly affected. Malpositioned teeth were noted in 32 (64%) cats, with abnormal orientation being the most common anomaly followed by rotation and impaction. Numerical abnormalities were present in 38 (76%) cats, including 6 (12%) with hyperdontia and 32 (64%) with hypodontia. Periodontal disease was reported in 44 (88%) cats, and cats with periodontal disease were older than cats without. Tooth resorption was evident in 35 (70%) cats. Overall, 123 of 1,349 (8.7%) teeth had external inflammatory resorption and 82 (6.1%) had external replacement resorption. The premolar teeth were the teeth most commonly affected with inflammatory resorption, whereas the canine teeth were the teeth most commonly affected with replacement resorption.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that because of their brachycephaly, Persian and Exotic cats have unique oral and dental features that may predispose them to dental disease (eg, tooth resorption and periodontal disease). Knowledge of the particular dental anomalies common in brachycephalic cats could aid in early detection and mitigation of dental disease in these breeds.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Mestrinho (lmestrinho@fmv.ulisboa.pt).