• 1. Platt B, Hawton K, Simkin S, et al. Suicidality in the veterinary profession: interview study of veterinarians with a history of suicidal ideation or behavior. Crisis 2012;33:280289.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Bartram DJ, Baldwin DS. Veterinary surgeons and suicide: a structured review of possible influences on increased risk. Vet Rec 2010;166:388397.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Blair A & Hayes HM Jr. Mortality patterns among US veterinarians, 1947–1977: an expanded study. Int J Epidemiol 1982;11:391397.

  • 4. Jones-Fairnie H, Ferroni P, Silburn S, et al. Suicide in Australian veterinarians. Aust Vet J 2008;86:114116.

  • 5. Bartram DJ, Yadegarfar G, Baldwin DS. A cross-sectional study of mental health and well-being and their associations in the UK veterinary profession. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2009;44:10751085.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Nett RJ, Witte TK, Holzbauer SM, et al. Risk factors for suicide, attitudes toward mental illness, and practice-related stressors among US veterinarians. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015;247:945955.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Skipper GE, Williams JB. Failure to acknowledge high suicide risk among veterinarians. J Vet Med Educ 2012;39:7982.

  • 8. Reeves WC, Strine TW, Pratt LA, et al. Mental illness surveillance among adults in the United States. MMWR Suppl 2011;60:129.

  • 9. Stoewen DL. Suicide in veterinary medicine: let's talk about it. Can Vet J 2015;56:8992.

  • 10. Wolfe LA. Confronting suicide in the veterinary community. Available at: www.veterinarypracticenews.com/confronting-suicide-in-the-veterinary-community. Accessed Dec 15, 2016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Maslach C, Schaufeli WB, Leiter MP. Job burnout. Annu Rev Psychol 2001;52:397422.

  • 12. Melchior M, Caspi A, Milne BJ, et al. Work stress precipitates depression and anxiety in young, working women and men. Psychol Med 2007;37:11191129.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Waldenström K, Ahlberg G, Bergman PU, et al. Externally assessed psychosocial work characteristics and diagnoses of anxiety and depression. Occup Environ Med 2008;65:9096.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Hatch PH, Winefield HR, Christie BA, et al. Workplace stress, mental health, and burnout of veterinarians in Australia. Aust Vet J 2011;89:460468.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Ostry A, Maggi S, Tansey J, et al. The impact of psychosocial work conditions on attempted and completed suicide among western Canadian sawmill workers. Scand J Public Health 2007;35:265271.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Bartram DJ, Yadegarfar G, Baldwin DS. Psychosocial working conditions and work-related stressors among UK veterinary surgeons. Occup Med (Lond) 2009;59:334341.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Glaser BG, Strauss A. The discovery of grounded theory: strategies for qualitative research. Chicago: Aldine, 1967;1282.

  • 18. Glaser BG. Basics of grounded theory analysis: emergence vs forcing. Mill Valley, Calif: Sociology Press, 1992;1129.

  • 19. Strauss AL, Corbin J. Grounded theory in practice. Beverly Hills, Calif: Sage, 1997;1288.

  • 20. Birks M, Mills J. Grounded theory: a practical guide. London: Sage Publications, 2011;1224.

  • 21. Weiss HM, Rupp DE. Experiencing work: an essay on a person-centric work psychology. Ind Organ Psychol Perspect Sci Pract 2011;4:8397.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22. Lofstedt J. Gender and veterinary medicine. Can Vet J 2003;44:533535.

  • 23. Kent L. The rise in dual income households. Available at: www.pewresearch.org/ft_dual-income-households-1960-2012-2. Accessed Feb 3, 2017.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. Ng TH, Sorensen KL. Toward a further understanding of the relationships between perceptions of support and work attitudes: a meta-analysis. Group Organ Manage 2008;33:243268.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25. Biron M. Effective and ineffective support: how different sources of support buffer the short- and long-term effects of a working day. Eur J Work Organ Psychol 2015;22:150164.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Development of a taxonomy of practice-related stressors experienced by veterinarians in the United States

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Psychology, Franklin College of Arts and Sciences, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.
  • | 2 Department of Psychology, Franklin College of Arts and Sciences, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.
  • | 3 Department of Psychology, College of Liberal Arts, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849.
  • | 4 Field Studies Branch, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, CDC, 1095 Willowdale Rd, Morgantown, WV 26505.
  • | 5 Department of Psychology, Franklin College of Arts and Sciences, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.
  • | 6 Department of Psychology, Franklin College of Arts and Sciences, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To develop a comprehensive taxonomy of practice-related stressors experienced by US veterinarians.

DESIGN Cross-sectional survey.

SAMPLE A subset of 1,422 US veterinarians who provided written (vs selected) responses to a question in a previous survey regarding practice-related stressors.

PROCEDURES Using grounded theory analysis, 3 researchers inductively analyzed written survey responses concerning respondents’ main practice-related stressors. In 5 iterations, responses were individually coded and categorized, and a final list of practice-related stressor categories and subcategories was iteratively and collaboratively developed until theoretical and analytic saturation of the data was achieved.

RESULTS A taxonomy of 15 categories of broad practice-related stressors and 40 subcategories of more specific practice-related stressors was developed. The most common practice-related stressor categories included financial insecurity (n = 289 [20.3%]), client issues (254 [17.9%]), coworker or interpersonal issues (181 [12.7%]), and work-life balance (166 [11.7%]). The most common subcategories were clients unwilling to pay (118 [8.3%]), low income (98 [6.9%]), cost of maintaining practice (56 [3.9%]), and government or state board policies (48 [3.4%]).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE This study provided a comprehensive list of the types of practice-related stressors experienced by US veterinarians, building a foundation for future research into relationships between job stress and mental health in this population. Frequency data on the various stressors provided an initial understanding of factors that might be contributing to high stress rates among US veterinarians.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To develop a comprehensive taxonomy of practice-related stressors experienced by US veterinarians.

DESIGN Cross-sectional survey.

SAMPLE A subset of 1,422 US veterinarians who provided written (vs selected) responses to a question in a previous survey regarding practice-related stressors.

PROCEDURES Using grounded theory analysis, 3 researchers inductively analyzed written survey responses concerning respondents’ main practice-related stressors. In 5 iterations, responses were individually coded and categorized, and a final list of practice-related stressor categories and subcategories was iteratively and collaboratively developed until theoretical and analytic saturation of the data was achieved.

RESULTS A taxonomy of 15 categories of broad practice-related stressors and 40 subcategories of more specific practice-related stressors was developed. The most common practice-related stressor categories included financial insecurity (n = 289 [20.3%]), client issues (254 [17.9%]), coworker or interpersonal issues (181 [12.7%]), and work-life balance (166 [11.7%]). The most common subcategories were clients unwilling to pay (118 [8.3%]), low income (98 [6.9%]), cost of maintaining practice (56 [3.9%]), and government or state board policies (48 [3.4%]).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE This study provided a comprehensive list of the types of practice-related stressors experienced by US veterinarians, building a foundation for future research into relationships between job stress and mental health in this population. Frequency data on the various stressors provided an initial understanding of factors that might be contributing to high stress rates among US veterinarians.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Ms. Vande Griek (oliviavandegriek@gmail.com).