• 1. Fitzpatrick GM, Cliff R, Tandon N. Thrombosomes: a platelet-derived hemostatic agent for control of non-compressible hemorrhage. Transfusion 2013;53:100S106S.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Hawksworth JS, Elster EA, Fryer D, et al. Evaluation of lyophilized platelets as an infusible hemostatic agent in experimental non-compressible hemorrhage in swine. J Thromb Haemost 2009;7:16631671.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Holcomb JB, Wade CE, Michalek JE, et al. Increased plasma and platelet to red blood cell ratios improves outcome in 466 massively transfused civilian trauma patients. Ann Surg 2008;248:447458.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Hux BD, Martin LG. Platelet transfusions: treatment options for hemorrhage secondary to thrombocytopenia. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 2012;22:7380.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Latimer E, Zong JC, Haeggans SY, et al. Detection and evaluation of novel herpesvirus in routine and pathological samples from Asian and African elephants: identification of two new probosciviruses (EEHV5 and EEHV6) and two new gammaherpesviruses (EGHV3B and EGHV5). Vet Microbiol 2011;147:2841.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Zink KA, Sambasivan CN, Holcomb JB, et al. A high ratio of plasma and platelets to packed red blood cells in the first 6 hours of massive transfusion improves outcomes in a large multicenter study. Am J Surg 2009;197:565570.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Bode AP, Fischer TH. Lyophilized platelets: 50 years in the making. Artif Cells Blood Substit Immobil Biotechnol 2007;35:125133.

  • 8. Cap AP, Perkins JG. Lyophilized platelets: challenges and opportunities. J Trauma 2011;70:S59S60.

  • 9. Pietramaggiori G, Kaipainen A, Ho D, et al. Trehalose lyophilized platelets for wound healing. Wound Repair Regen 2007;15:213220.

  • 10. Davidow EB, Brainard B, Martin LG, et al. Use of fresh platelet concentrate or lyophilized platelets in thrombocytopenic dogs with clinical signs of hemorrhage: a preliminary trial in 37 dogs. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 2012;22:116125.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. McNicol A, Israels SJ. Beyond hemostasis: the role of platelets in inflammation, malignancy and infection. Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets 2008;8:99117.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Ariede JR, Pardini MIMC, Silva GF, et al. Platelets can be a biological compartment for the hepatitis C virus. Braz J Microbiol 2015;46:627629.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Getz TM, Montgomery RK, Bynum JA, et al. Storage of platelets at 4C in platelet additive solutions prevents aggregate formation and preserves platelet functional responses. Transfusion 2016;56:13201328.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Handigund M, Bae TW, Lee J, et al. Evaluation of in vitro storage characteristics of cold stored platelet concentrates with N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Transfus Apher Sci 2016;54:127138.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Currie LM, Harper JR, Allan H, et al. Inhibition of cytokine accumulation and bacterial growth during storage of platelet concentrates at 4 degrees C with retention of in vitro functional activity. Transfusion 1997;37:1824.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Wolkers WF, Walker NJ, Tablin F, et al. Human platelets loaded with trehalose survive freeze-drying. Cryobiology 2001;42:7987.

  • 17. Sum R, Hager S, Pietramaggiori G, et al. Wound-healing properties of trehalose-stabilized freeze-dried outdated platelets. Transfusion 2007;47:672679.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Fischer TH, Bode AP, Parker BR, et al. Primary and secondary hemostatic functionalities of rehydrated, lyophilized platelets. Transfusion 2006;46:19431950.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Slichter S, Fitzpatrick GM. Evaluation of the safety and immunogenicity of autologous thrombosomes in healthy human subjects; a microdose escalation study (cohorts 1–4) and repeat microdose immunogenicity study (cohort 5). Available at: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02223117. Accessed Sep 28, 2016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. Bode AP, Lust RM, Read MS, et al. Correction of the bleeding time with lyophilized platelet infusions in dogs on cardiopulmonary bypass. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2008;14:3854.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. Cap AP, Getz TM, Spinella PC, et al. Platelet transfusion. In: Gonzalez E, Moore HB, Moore EE, eds. Trauma induced coagulopathy. Basel, Switzerland: Springer; 2016;347376.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22. Fischer TH, Wolberg AS, Bode AP, et al. The interaction of factor VIIa with rehydrated, lyophilized platelets. Platelets 2008;19:182191.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23. Macko AR, Crossland RF, Cap AP, et al. Control of severe intra-abdominal hemorrhage with an infusible platelet-derived hemostatic agent in nonhuman primate (rhesus macaque) model. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2016;80:617624.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. Zapata JC, Cox D, Salvato MS. The role of platelets in the pathogenesis of viral hemorrhagic fevers. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2014;8:e2858.

Advertisement

Do lyophilized platelets hold promise for treatment of hemorrhagic diseases in wild animals?

View More View Less
  • 1 Smithsonian Global Health Program, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, National Zoological Park, 3001 Connecticut Ave NW, Washington, DC 20013.
  • | 2 Smithsonian Global Health Program, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, National Zoological Park, 3001 Connecticut Ave NW, Washington, DC 20013.
  • | 3 Cellphire Inc, 9430 Key W Ave, Rockville, MD 20850.
  • | 4 Smithsonian Global Health Program, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, National Zoological Park, 3001 Connecticut Ave NW, Washington, DC 20013.
  • | 5 San Diego Wild Animal Park, 15500 San Pasqual Valley Rd, Escondido, CA 92027.
  • | 6 Ringling Bros. Center for Elephant Conservation, 12850 Old Grade Road, Polk City, FL 33868.
  • | 7 Fort Worth Zoo, 1989 Colonial Pkwy, Fort Worth, TX 76110.
  • | 8 Smithsonian Global Health Program, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, National Zoological Park, 3001 Connecticut Ave NW, Washington, DC 20013.

Bleeding as a result of trauma, hemorrhagic diseases, or primary platelet-related abnormalities is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in humans and animals. 1–5 In humans, for example, hemorrhage is the most common cause of preventable death following traumatic injury in patients < 65 years of age and is a leading cause of potentially survivable deaths during military operations. 1,3,6 Treatment for hemorrhage, in addition to supportive care and volume resuscitation, frequently includes IV administration of whole blood or platelet concentrates to counteract the effects of a rapid decrease in platelet numbers associated with platelet consumption and

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Kishbaugh (kishbaughj@si.edu).