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Clinical findings and outcomes for dogs with uveodermatologic syndrome

Mitzi K. ZarfossAnimal Eye Specialists, 10324 San Pablo Ave, El Cerrito, CA 94530.

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Charlotte A. TuslerSchool of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.

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Philip H. KassDepartment of Population Health and Reproduction, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.

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Keith MontgomeryDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606.

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Christine C. LimDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108.

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Freya MowatDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606.

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Sara M. ThomasyDepartment of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate signalment, clinical signs, treatment, and factors affecting visual prognosis in dogs with uveodermatologic syndrome (UDS).

DESIGN Retrospective case series and nested cohort study.

ANIMALS 50 dogs (37 Akitas and 13 non-Akitas) with UDS evaluated at 4 ophthalmology practices.

PROCEDURES Data were collected from the medical records regarding signalment, clinical signs, biopsy results, medications, adverse effects, vision and glaucoma status at initial and subsequent examinations, and duration of follow-up. Various factors were examined for associations with development of blindness or glaucoma following initial examination.

RESULTS The most common ophthalmic signs included aqueous flare (n = 35 [70%]), iris abnormalities (29 [58%]), retinal detachment (23 [46%]), and choroidal depigmentation or chorioretinal infiltrates (10 [20%]). At initial examination, 36% (18/50) of dogs had glaucoma and 57% (26/46) were blind in both eyes. Twenty-five (50%) dogs had vision at their final visit, representing 78% of the 32 dogs that had vision at initial examination or regained vision during the follow-up period. In dogs that lost vision, median time to permanent blindness in both eyes was 13.5 months (range, 0.4 to 59 months) after initial examination. No significant associations with time to glaucoma or vision loss were identified for signalment variables, specific medications, or duration of clinical signs prior to initial examination.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE UDS commonly resulted in glaucoma, vision loss, or both in affected dogs. No evaluated factor was associated with visual prognosis; however, a subset of patients maintained vision through to the final recheck examination.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate signalment, clinical signs, treatment, and factors affecting visual prognosis in dogs with uveodermatologic syndrome (UDS).

DESIGN Retrospective case series and nested cohort study.

ANIMALS 50 dogs (37 Akitas and 13 non-Akitas) with UDS evaluated at 4 ophthalmology practices.

PROCEDURES Data were collected from the medical records regarding signalment, clinical signs, biopsy results, medications, adverse effects, vision and glaucoma status at initial and subsequent examinations, and duration of follow-up. Various factors were examined for associations with development of blindness or glaucoma following initial examination.

RESULTS The most common ophthalmic signs included aqueous flare (n = 35 [70%]), iris abnormalities (29 [58%]), retinal detachment (23 [46%]), and choroidal depigmentation or chorioretinal infiltrates (10 [20%]). At initial examination, 36% (18/50) of dogs had glaucoma and 57% (26/46) were blind in both eyes. Twenty-five (50%) dogs had vision at their final visit, representing 78% of the 32 dogs that had vision at initial examination or regained vision during the follow-up period. In dogs that lost vision, median time to permanent blindness in both eyes was 13.5 months (range, 0.4 to 59 months) after initial examination. No significant associations with time to glaucoma or vision loss were identified for signalment variables, specific medications, or duration of clinical signs prior to initial examination.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE UDS commonly resulted in glaucoma, vision loss, or both in affected dogs. No evaluated factor was associated with visual prognosis; however, a subset of patients maintained vision through to the final recheck examination.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Zarfoss’ present address is PETS Referral Center, 1048 University Ave, Berkeley, CA 94710.

Dr. Tusler's present address is Comparative Ocular Pathology Laboratory of Wisconsin, 2015 Linden Dr, Unit 3308, Madison, WI 53706.

Dr. Montgomery's present address is Upstate Veterinary Specialties, 152 Sparrow-bush Rd, Latham NY 12110.

Dr. Lim's present address is Eye Care for Animals, 3123 N Clybourn Ave, Ste 200, Chicago, IL 60618.

Address correspondence to Dr. Thomasy (smthomasy@ucdavis.edu).