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Evaluation of the diagnostic utility of cytologic examination of renal fine-needle aspirates from dogs and the use of ultrasonographic features to inform cytologic diagnosis

Camille A. McAloneyDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108.

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Leslie C. SharkeyDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108.

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Daniel A. FeeneyDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108.

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Davis M. SeeligDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108.

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Anne C. AveryDepartment of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

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Carl R. JessenDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108.

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To describe cytologic characteristics of renal fine-needle aspirate (FNA) samples from dogs, evaluate proportions of cytologic specimens deemed adequate for interpretation (diagnostic yield), assess diagnostic utility of cytologic examination for neoplastic and nonneoplastic diseases, and characterize ultrasonographic features of evaluated kidneys to determine whether the imaging characteristics could be used to inform cytologic interpretations.

DESIGN Retrospective, observational study.

SAMPLE 102 cytologic specimens and 97 ultrasonographic studies from 100 dogs.

PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed to identify dogs that underwent ultrasound-guided renal FNA. Slides were categorized as adequate or inadequate for interpretation; adequate slides were used for retrospective cytologic diagnosis. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of cytologic examination for detection of neoplastic and nonneoplastic conditions were calculated by comparison with histologic or lymphoid cell clonality assay results. Ultrasonographic characteristics of neoplastic and nonneoplastic renal lesions were described.

RESULTS 74 of 102 (72%) specimens had slides adequate for interpretation; 26 were included in the diagnostic accuracy analysis. Sensitivity of cytologic examination was 78% and 50% for detection of neoplastic and nonneoplastic conditions, respectively, with specificities of 50% and 77%, respectively; sensitivity for detection of lymphoma was 100%. Ultrasonographic appearance of kidneys with confirmed neoplasia varied; masses were most commonly found in kidneys with carcinoma (5/5), lymphoma (5/7), or other neoplasia (3/4) and absent in kidneys with nonneoplastic conditions (n = 5).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Renal FNA specimens were adequate for interpretation at rates comparable with those reported for other organs and were considered clinically useful for diagnosis of neoplasia. Imaging characteristics may potentially aid differentiation between neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions; however, further investigation is needed.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To describe cytologic characteristics of renal fine-needle aspirate (FNA) samples from dogs, evaluate proportions of cytologic specimens deemed adequate for interpretation (diagnostic yield), assess diagnostic utility of cytologic examination for neoplastic and nonneoplastic diseases, and characterize ultrasonographic features of evaluated kidneys to determine whether the imaging characteristics could be used to inform cytologic interpretations.

DESIGN Retrospective, observational study.

SAMPLE 102 cytologic specimens and 97 ultrasonographic studies from 100 dogs.

PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed to identify dogs that underwent ultrasound-guided renal FNA. Slides were categorized as adequate or inadequate for interpretation; adequate slides were used for retrospective cytologic diagnosis. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of cytologic examination for detection of neoplastic and nonneoplastic conditions were calculated by comparison with histologic or lymphoid cell clonality assay results. Ultrasonographic characteristics of neoplastic and nonneoplastic renal lesions were described.

RESULTS 74 of 102 (72%) specimens had slides adequate for interpretation; 26 were included in the diagnostic accuracy analysis. Sensitivity of cytologic examination was 78% and 50% for detection of neoplastic and nonneoplastic conditions, respectively, with specificities of 50% and 77%, respectively; sensitivity for detection of lymphoma was 100%. Ultrasonographic appearance of kidneys with confirmed neoplasia varied; masses were most commonly found in kidneys with carcinoma (5/5), lymphoma (5/7), or other neoplasia (3/4) and absent in kidneys with nonneoplastic conditions (n = 5).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Renal FNA specimens were adequate for interpretation at rates comparable with those reported for other organs and were considered clinically useful for diagnosis of neoplasia. Imaging characteristics may potentially aid differentiation between neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions; however, further investigation is needed.

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary Figure s1 (PDF 282 kb)

Contributor Notes

Dr. McAloney's present address is Department of Veterinary Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

Dr. Sharkey's present address is Department of Clinical Sciences, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, MA 01536.

Address correspondence to Dr. Sharkey (leslie.sharkey@tufts.edu).