Clinical and histologic features of acute-onset erythroderma in dogs with gastrointestinal disease: 18 cases (2005–2015)

Christine L. Cain Department of Clinical Sciences and Advanced Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.

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Charles W. Bradley II Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.

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Elizabeth A. Mauldin Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To describe the clinical and histologic features of acute erythroderma in dogs with gastrointestinal disease.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 18 dogs with erythroderma and gastrointestinal disease.

PROCEDURES Medical records and biopsy specimens were reviewed. Information collected from medical records included signalment, clinical signs, physical examination and diagnostic test results, treatment, and outcome. The Naranjo algorithm was used to estimate the probability of an adverse drug reaction for each dog.

RESULTS All dogs had an acute onset of erythematous macules or generalized erythroderma. Histologic features of skin biopsy specimens had 3 patterns representing a progressive spectrum of inflammation. Most dogs had vomiting (n = 17) and hematochezia (10). Signs of gastrointestinal disease became evident before, after, or concurrent with the onset of skin lesions in 10, 3, and 5 dogs, respectively. Inflammatory bowel disease, pancreatitis, and adverse food reaction were diagnosed in 5, 3, and 3 dogs, respectively. The cause of the gastrointestinal signs was not identified for 8 dogs. Eight dogs had a Naranjo score consistent with a possible adverse drug reaction. Treatment of skin lesions included drug withdrawal (n = 15), antihistamines (16), and corticosteroids (14). Signs of gastrointestinal disease and skin lesions resolved at a mean of 4.6 days and 20.8 days, respectively, after onset.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated acute erythroderma may be associated with > 1 gastrointestinal disease or an adverse drug reaction in some dogs. Recognition of the clinical and histologic features of this syndrome is essential for accurate diagnosis.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To describe the clinical and histologic features of acute erythroderma in dogs with gastrointestinal disease.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 18 dogs with erythroderma and gastrointestinal disease.

PROCEDURES Medical records and biopsy specimens were reviewed. Information collected from medical records included signalment, clinical signs, physical examination and diagnostic test results, treatment, and outcome. The Naranjo algorithm was used to estimate the probability of an adverse drug reaction for each dog.

RESULTS All dogs had an acute onset of erythematous macules or generalized erythroderma. Histologic features of skin biopsy specimens had 3 patterns representing a progressive spectrum of inflammation. Most dogs had vomiting (n = 17) and hematochezia (10). Signs of gastrointestinal disease became evident before, after, or concurrent with the onset of skin lesions in 10, 3, and 5 dogs, respectively. Inflammatory bowel disease, pancreatitis, and adverse food reaction were diagnosed in 5, 3, and 3 dogs, respectively. The cause of the gastrointestinal signs was not identified for 8 dogs. Eight dogs had a Naranjo score consistent with a possible adverse drug reaction. Treatment of skin lesions included drug withdrawal (n = 15), antihistamines (16), and corticosteroids (14). Signs of gastrointestinal disease and skin lesions resolved at a mean of 4.6 days and 20.8 days, respectively, after onset.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated acute erythroderma may be associated with > 1 gastrointestinal disease or an adverse drug reaction in some dogs. Recognition of the clinical and histologic features of this syndrome is essential for accurate diagnosis.

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