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Pharmacokinetics of chloramphenicol base after oral administration in adult horses

Eva M. McElligottDepartment of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996.

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Carla S. SommardahlDepartment of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996.

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Sherry K. CoxDepartment of Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996.

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics of chloramphenicol base after PO administration at a dose of SO mg/kg (22.7 mg/lb) in adult horses from which food was not withheld.

DESIGN Prospective crossover study.

ANIMALS 5 adult mares.

PROCEDURES Chloramphenicol base (SO mg/kg) was administered PO to each horse, and blood samples were collected prior to administration (0 minutes) and at 5, 10, 15, and 30 minutes and 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 hours thereafter. Following a washout period, chloramphenicol sodium succinate (25 mg/kg [11.4 mg/lb]) was administered IV to each horse, and blood samples were collected prior to administration (0 minutes) and at 3, 5, 10, 15, 30, and 45 minutes and 1, 2, 4, and 8 hours thereafter.

RESULTS In horses, plasma half-life, volume of distribution at steady state, clearance, and area under the plasma concentration-time curve for chloramphenicol after IV administration ranged from 0.65 to 1.20 hours, 0.51 to 0.78 L/kg, 0.78 to 1.22 L/h/kg, and 20.5 to 32.1 h·μg/mL, respectively. The elimination half-life, time to maximum plasma concentration, maximum plasma concentration, and area under the plasma concentration-time curve after PO administration ranged from 1.7 to 7.4 hours, 0.25 to 2.00 hours, 1.52 to 5.45 μg/mL, and 10.3 to 21.6 h·μg/mL, respectively. Mean ± SD chloramphenicol bioavailability was 28 ± 10% and terminal half-life was 2.85 ± 1.32 hours following PO administration.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Given that the maximum plasma chloramphenicol concentration in this study was lower than previously reported values, it is recommended to determine the drug's MIC for target bacteria before administration of chloramphenicol in adult horses.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics of chloramphenicol base after PO administration at a dose of SO mg/kg (22.7 mg/lb) in adult horses from which food was not withheld.

DESIGN Prospective crossover study.

ANIMALS 5 adult mares.

PROCEDURES Chloramphenicol base (SO mg/kg) was administered PO to each horse, and blood samples were collected prior to administration (0 minutes) and at 5, 10, 15, and 30 minutes and 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 hours thereafter. Following a washout period, chloramphenicol sodium succinate (25 mg/kg [11.4 mg/lb]) was administered IV to each horse, and blood samples were collected prior to administration (0 minutes) and at 3, 5, 10, 15, 30, and 45 minutes and 1, 2, 4, and 8 hours thereafter.

RESULTS In horses, plasma half-life, volume of distribution at steady state, clearance, and area under the plasma concentration-time curve for chloramphenicol after IV administration ranged from 0.65 to 1.20 hours, 0.51 to 0.78 L/kg, 0.78 to 1.22 L/h/kg, and 20.5 to 32.1 h·μg/mL, respectively. The elimination half-life, time to maximum plasma concentration, maximum plasma concentration, and area under the plasma concentration-time curve after PO administration ranged from 1.7 to 7.4 hours, 0.25 to 2.00 hours, 1.52 to 5.45 μg/mL, and 10.3 to 21.6 h·μg/mL, respectively. Mean ± SD chloramphenicol bioavailability was 28 ± 10% and terminal half-life was 2.85 ± 1.32 hours following PO administration.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Given that the maximum plasma chloramphenicol concentration in this study was lower than previously reported values, it is recommended to determine the drug's MIC for target bacteria before administration of chloramphenicol in adult horses.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. McElligott (emmcelligott@gmail.com).

Dr. McElligott's present address is Banfield Pet Hospital, 628 Bacons Bridge Rd, Summerville, SC 29485.