• 1. Jones KL. Therapeutic review: alfaxalone. J Exot Pet Med 2012; 21: 347353.

  • 2. Muir W, Lerche P, Wiese A, et al. Cardiorespiratory and anesthetic effects of clinical and supraclinical doses of alfaxalone in dogs. Vet Anaesth Analg 2008; 35: 451462.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Muir W, Lerche P, Wiese A, et al. The cardiorespiratory and anesthetic effects of clinical and supraclinical doses of alfaxalone in cats. Vet Anaesth Analg 2009; 36: 4254.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Strachan FA, Mansel JC, Clutton RE. A comparison of microbial growth in alfaxalone, propofol and thiopental. J Small Anim Pract 2008; 49: 186190.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Stumpel J, Benato L, Eatwell K. Transcutaneous pulmonoscopic removal of intrapneumonic mucus in a bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). Vet Rec 2012; 170: 338.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Naylor AD. Femoral head and neck excision arthroplasty in a leopard tortoise (Stimochelys pardalis). J Zoo Wildl Med 2013; 44: 982989.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Bertelsen MF, Sauer CD. Alfaxalone anaesthesia in the green iguana (Iguana iguana). Vet Anaesth Analg 2011; 38: 461466.

  • 8. Hansen LL, Bertelsen MF. Assessment of the effects of intramuscular administration of alfaxalone with and without medetomidine in Horsfield tortoises (Agrionemys horsfieldii). Vet Anaesth Analg 2013; 40: e68e75.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Kischinovsky M, Duse A, Wang T, et al. Intramuscular administration of alfaxalone in red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans): effects of dose and body temperature. Vet Anaesth Analg 2013; 40: 1320.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Shepard MK, Divers S, Braun C, et al. Pharmacodynamics of alfaxalone after single-dose intramuscular administration in red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans): a comparison of two different doses at two different ambient temperatures. Vet Anaesth Analg 2013; 40: 590598.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Olsson A, Phalen D, Dart C. Preliminary studies of alfaxalone and intravenous immobilization of juvenile captive estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) and Australian freshwater crocodiles (Crocodylus johnstoni) at optimal and selected suboptimal thermal zones. Vet Anaesth Analg 2013; 40: 494502.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Moon PF, Stabenau EK. Anesthetic and postanesthetic management of sea turtles. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996; 208: 720726.

  • 13. Chittick EJ, Stamper MA, Beasley JF, et al. Medetomidine, ketamine, and sevoflurane for anesthesia of injured loggerhead sea turtles: 13 cases (1996–2000). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221: 10191025.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Harms CA, Eckert SA, Kubis SA, et al. Field anesthesia of leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea). Vet Rec 2007; 161: 1521.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Harms CA, Eckert SA, Jones TT, et al. A technique for underwater anesthesia compared with manual restraint of sea turtles undergoing auditory evoked potential measurements. J Herpetol Med Surg 2009; 19: 812.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Harms CA, Piniak WED, Eckert SA, et al. Sedation and anesthesia of hatchling leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) for auditory evoked potential measurement in air and in water. J Zoo Wildl Med 2014; 45: 8692.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. MacLean RA, Harms CA, Braun-McNeill J. Propofol anesthesia in loggerhead (Caretta caretta) sea turtles. J Wildl Dis 2008; 44: 143150.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Kelly TR, McNeill JB, Avens L, et al. Clinical pathology reference intervals for an in-water population of juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in Core Sound, North Carolina, USA. PLoS One 2015; 10: e0115739.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Luschi P, Mencacci R, Vallini C, et al. Long-term tracking of adult loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) in the Mediterranean sea. J Herpetol 2013; 47: 227231.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. Lutcavage ME, Lutz PL. Voluntary diving mechanisms and ventilation in the loggerhead sea turtle. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 1991; 147: 287296.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. Stabenau EK, Heming TA. Determination of the constants of the Henderson-Hasselbalch, αCO2 and pKa, in sea turtle plasma. J Exp Biol 1993; 180: 311314.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22. Siggaard-Anderson O. The acid-base status of the blood. 4th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1976.

  • 23. Hollander H, Wolfe DA, Chicken E. Chapter 7: the two-way layout. In: Wiley series in probability and statistics: nonparametric statistical methods. 3rd ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2014;292303

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. Knotek Z, Hrdá A, Knotková Z, et al. Alfaxalone anaesthesia in the green iguana (Iguana iguana). Acta Vet Brno 2012; 82: 109114.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25. Knotek Z. Alfaxalone as an induction agent for anaesthesia in terrapins and tortoises. Vet Rec 2014; 175: 327329.

  • 26. Salmon M, Jones TT, Horch KW. Ontogeny of diving and feeding behavior in juvenile sea turtles: leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea L) and green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas L) in the Florida current. J Herpetol 2004; 38: 3643.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27. Hochscheid S. Why we mind sea turtles' underwater business: a review on the study of diving behavior. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 2014; 450: 118136.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28. Pathirathna S, Brimelowa BC, Jagodica MM, et al. New evidence that both T-type calcium channels and GABAA channels are responsible for the potent peripheral analgesic effects of 5α-reduced neuroactive steroids. Pain 2005; 114: 429443.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29. Pathirathna S, Todorovica SM, Coveyb DF, et al. 5α-reduced neuroactive steroids alleviate thermal and mechanical hyper-algesia in rats with neuropathic pain. Pain 2005; 117: 326339.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Effects of alfaxalone administered intravenously to healthy yearling loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) at three different doses

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Clinical Sciences and the Environmental Medicine Consortium, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27607.
  • | 2 Center for Marine Sciences and Technology, North Carolina State University, Morehead City, NC 28557.
  • | 3 North Carolina Aquariums, 3125 Poplarwood Ct, Raleigh, NC, 27604.
  • | 4 Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27607.
  • | 5 Department of Clinical Sciences and the Environmental Medicine Consortium, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27607.
  • | 6 North Carolina Aquariums, 3125 Poplarwood Ct, Raleigh, NC, 27604.
  • | 7 Department of Clinical Sciences and the Environmental Medicine Consortium, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27607.
  • | 8 Center for Marine Sciences and Technology, North Carolina State University, Morehead City, NC 28557.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare physiologic and anesthetic effects of alfaxalone administered IV to yearling loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) at 3 different doses.

DESIGN Randomized crossover study.

ANIMALS 9 healthy yearling loggerhead sea turtles.

PROCEDURES Animals received each of 3 doses of alfaxalone (3 mg/kg [1.4 mg/lb], 5 mg/kg [2.3 mg/lb], or 10 mg/kg [4.5 mg/lb]) administered IV in randomly assigned order, with a minimum 7-day washout period between doses. Endotracheal intubation was attempted following anesthetic induction, and heart rate, sedation depth, cloacal temperature, and respirations were monitored. Times to first effect, induction, first voluntary muscle movement, first respiration, and recovery were recorded. Venous blood gas analysis was performed at 0 and 30 minutes. Assisted ventilation was performed if apnea persisted 30 minutes following induction.

RESULTS Median anesthetic induction time for all 3 doses was 2 minutes. Endotracheal intubation was accomplished in all turtles following induction. Heart rate significantly increased after the 3- and 5-mg/kg doses were administered. Median intervals from alfaxalone administration to first spontaneous respiration were 16, 22, and 54 minutes for the 3-, 5-, and 10-mg/kg doses, respectively, and median intervals to recovery were 28, 46, and 90 minutes, respectively. Assisted ventilation was required for 1 turtle after receiving the 5-mg/kg dose and for 5 turtles after receiving the 10-mg/kg dose. The 10-mg/kg dose resulted in respiratory acidosis and marked hypoxemia at 30 minutes.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE IV alfaxalone administration to loggerhead sea turtles resulted in a rapid anesthetic induction and dose-dependent duration of sedation. Assisted ventilation is recommended if the 10 mg/kg dose is administered.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Phillips (bphillipsdvm@gmail.com).