• 1. Cotchin E. Some tumours of dogs and cats of comparative veterinary and human interest. Vet Rec 1959; 71: 10401050.

  • 2. Selting KA. Intestinal tumors. In: Withrow SJ, ed. Withrow & MacEwen's small animal clinical oncology. St Louis: Saunders Elsevier, 2007; 491503.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Birchard SJ, Couto CG, Johnson S. Non-lymphoid intestinal neoplasia in 32 dogs and 14 cats. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1986; 22: 533537.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Holt PE, Lucke VM. Rectal neoplasia in the dog: a clincopathological review of 31 cases. Vet Rec 1985; 116: 400405.

  • 5. Church EM, Mehlhaff CJ, Patnaik AK. Colorectal adenocarcinoma in dogs: 78 cases (1973–1984). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1987; 191: 727730.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Patnaik AK, Hurvitz AI, Johnson GF. Canine gastrointestinal neoplasm. Vet Pathol 1977; 14: 547555.

  • 7. Crawshaw J, Ber J, Sardinas JC, et al. Prognosis for dogs with nonlymphomatous, small intestinal tumors treated by surgical excision. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1998; 34: 451456.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Kupanoff PA, Popovitch CA, Goldschmidt MH. Colorectal plasmacytomas: a retrospective study of nine dogs. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2006; 42: 3743.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Davies JV, Read HM. Sagittal pubic osteotomy in the investigation and treatment of intrapelvic neoplasia in the dog. J Small Anim Pract 1990; 31: 123130.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Seiler RJ. Colorectal polyps of the dog: a clinicopathologic study of 17 cases. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1979; 174: 7275.

  • 11. Patnaik AK, Hurvitz AI, Johnson GF. Canine intestinal adenocarcinoma and carcinoid. Vet Pathol 1980; 17: 149163.

  • 12. Danova NA, Robles-Emanuelli JC, Bjorling DE. Surgical excision of primary canine rectal tumors by an anal approach in twenty-three dogs. Vet Surg 2006; 35: 337340.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Valerius KD, Powers BE, McPherron MA, et al. Adenomatous polyps and carcinoma in situ of the canine colon and rectum: 34 cases (1982–1994). J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1997; 33: 156160.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Aronson LR. Rectum, anus and perineum. In: Tobias KM, Johnston SA, eds. Veterinary surgery: small animal. St Louis: Elsevier Saunders, 2012; 15641600.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Burrows CF. Evaluation of a colonic lavage solution to prepare the colon of the dog for colonoscopy. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1989; 195: 17191721.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Leib MS, Baechtel MS, Monroe WE. Complications associated with 355 flexible colonoscopic procedures in dogs. J Vet Intern Med 2004; 18: 642646.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Greene FL, Balch CM, Fleming ID, et al. Colon and rectum. In: AJCC manual for staging of cancer. 6th ed. New York: Springer Verlag, 2002; 113121.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. The Paris endoscopic classification of superficial neoplastic lesions: esophagus, stomach, and colon: November 30 to December 1, 2002. Gastrointest Endosc 2003; 58(suppl 6):S3S43.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. van Doorn SC, Hazewinkel Y, East JE, et al. Polyp morphology: an interobserver evaluation for the Paris classification among international experts. Am J Gastroenterol 2015; 110: 180187.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. Nucci DJ, Liptak JM, Selmic LE, et al. Complications and outcomes following rectal pull-through surgery in dogs with rectal masses: 74 cases (2000–2013). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2014; 245: 684695.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. Willard MD. Colonscopy, proctoscopy and ileoscopy. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2001; 31: 657669.

  • 22. Lorenz C, Nimmergern T, Back M, et al. Transanal single port microsurgery (TSPM) as a modified technique of transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM). Surg Innov 2010; 17: 160163.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23. Steffey MA, Daniel L, Taylor SL, et al. Computed tomography pneumocolonography in normal dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2015; 56: 278285.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. Compton CC. Colorectal carcinoma: diagnostic, prognostic and molecular features. Mod Pathol 2003; 16: 376388.

  • 25. Kekelidze M, D'Errico L, Pansini M, et al. Colorectal cancer: current imaging methods and future perspectives for the diagnosis, staging and therapeutic response evaluation. World J Gastroenterol 2013; 19: 85028514.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26. Samdani T, Garcia-Aguilar J. Imaging in rectal cancer: magnetic resonance imaging versus endorectal ultrasonography. Surg Oncol Clin N Am 2014; 23: 5977.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Colonoscopic and histologic features of rectal masses in dogs: 82 cases (1995–2012)

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 2 Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 3 Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 4 Flint Animal Cancer Center, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.
  • | 5 Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 6 Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, PA, 19103.
  • | 7 Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, PA, 19103.
  • | 8 Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, PA, 19103.
  • | 9 Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 10 VDx Veterinary Diagnostics, 2019 Anderson Rd, Ste C, Davis, CA 95616.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate colonoscopic and histologic features of rectal masses in dogs.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 82 client-owned dogs with rectal masses that underwent colonoscopy.

PROCEDURES Medical records of dogs with rectal masses that underwent colonoscopy were reviewed. History, signalment, clinical signs, results of physical examination, diagnostic imaging findings, and results of colonoscopy (including complications) were recorded. When available, tissue samples obtained during colonoscopy and by means of surgical biopsy were reviewed by a single board-certified pathologist. Histologic features and tumor grade (when applicable) of tissue samples obtained during colonoscopy versus surgical biopsy were compared.

RESULTS Multiple rectal masses were observed during colonoscopy in 6 of the 82 dogs, but no lesions were visualized orad to the colorectal junction. Results of histologic evaluation of surgical biopsy specimens were consistent with a diagnosis of epithelial neoplasia in 58 of 64 dogs, of which 71% were classified as benign adenoma or polyp and 29% were classified as adenocarcinoma in situ or adenocarcinoma. Complications of colonoscopy occurred in 3 of 82 dogs but were considered minor. A discrepancy in diagnosis occurred in 5 of 16 dogs for which both colonoscopic and surgical biopsy samples were available for histologic review.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that multiple rectal masses are uncommon in dogs, and secondary lesions orad to the colorectal junction were not found in this study. Colonoscopy was associated with few complications, but the need for colonoscopic assessment of the entire colon in this patient population may merit reevaluation.

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary Table s1 (PDF 38 kb)

Contributor Notes

Dr. Adamovich-Rippe's present address is Central Texas Veterinary Specialty Hospital, 4434 Frontier Trail, Austin, TX 78745.

Dr Selmic's present address is Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61821.

Address correspondence to Dr. Mayhew (philmayhew@gmail.com).