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Effects of acepromazine and trazodone on anesthetic induction dose of propofol and cardiovascular variables in dogs undergoing general anesthesia for orthopedic surgery

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  • 1 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108.
  • | 2 Department of Large Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.
  • | 3 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108.
  • | 4 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108.
  • | 5 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108.
  • | 6 Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare the doses of propofol required to induce general anesthesia in dogs premedicated with acepromazine maleate or trazodone hydrochloride and compare the effects of these premedicants on cardiovascular variables in dogs anesthetized for orthopedic surgery.

DESIGN Prospective, randomized study.

ANIMALS 30 systemically healthy client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES 15 dogs received acepromazine (0.01 to 0.03 mg/kg [0.005 to 0.014 mg/lb], IM) 30 minutes before anesthetic induction and 15 received trazodone (5 mg/kg [2.27 mg/lb] for patients > 10 kg or 7 mg/kg [3.18 mg/lb] for patients ≤ 10 kg, PO) 2 hours before induction. Both groups received morphine sulfate (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb], IM) 30 minutes before induction. Anesthesia was induced with propofol (4 to 6 mg/kg [1.82 to 2.73 mg/lb], IV, to effect) and maintained with isoflurane or sevoflurane in oxygen. Bupivacaine (0.5 mg/kg [0.227 mg/lb]) and morphine (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb]) were administered epidurally. Dogs underwent tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (n = 22) or tibial tuberosity advancement (8) and were monitored throughout anesthesia. Propofol induction doses and cardiovascular variables (heart rate and systemic, mean, and diastolic arterial blood pressures) were compared between groups.

RESULTS The mean dose of propofol required for anesthetic induction and all cardiovascular variables evaluated did not differ between groups. Intraoperative hypotension developed in 6 and 5 dogs of the acepromazine and trazodone groups, respectively; bradycardia requiring intervention developed in 3 dogs/group. One dog that received trazodone had priapism 24 hours later and was treated successfully. No other adverse effects were reported.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE At the described dosages, cardiovascular effects of trazodone were similar to those of acepromazine in healthy dogs undergoing anesthesia for orthopedic surgery.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Murphy's present address is Pilchuck Veterinary Hospital, 11308 92nd St Southeast, Snohomish, WA 98290.

Address correspondence to Dr. Murphy (mathe332@umn.edu).