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Povidone iodine sclerotherapy for treatment of idiopathic renal hematuria in two dogs

Lauren B. AdelmanDepartment of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996.

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Joseph BartgesDepartment of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996.

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Jacqueline C. WhittemoreDepartment of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996.

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Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION A 6-year-old spayed female Great Pyrenees (dog 1) and a 2-year-old spayed female German Shepherd Dog (dog 2) were evaluated because of gross hematuria of 5 and 2 months' duration, respectively.

CLINICAL FINDINGS In both dogs, coagulation times were within reference limits, results of aerobic bacterial culture of urine samples were negative, echogenic debris could be seen within the urinary bladder ultrasonographically, and hematuric urine could be seen exiting the right ureterovesicular junction, with grossly normal urine exiting the left ureterovesicular junction, during cystoscopy. A diagnosis of idiopathic renal hematuria was made in both dogs.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Both dogs underwent retrograde ureteropyelography, unilateral povidone iodine sclerotherapy, and ureteral stent placement. The right ureter was occluded with a ureteropelvic junction balloon catheter, and a 5% povidone iodine solution was infused into the renal pelvis 3 times. A double-pigtail ureteral stent was then placed. Both dogs recovered without complications, with cessation of gross hematuria within 12 hours. Cystoscopic removal of the ureteral stent was performed in dog 1 after 4 months; at that time, the urine sediment contained 5 to 10 RBCs/hpf. In dog 2, urine sediment contained 50 to 75 RBCs/hpf 2 weeks after sclerotherapy, with continued resolution of gross hematuria 8 weeks after sclerotherapy. The owners declined removal of the stent in dog 2.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that povidone iodine sclerotherapy may be an effective renal-sparing treatment for idiopathic renal hematuria in dogs. Further evaluation with longer follow-up times is warranted.

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION A 6-year-old spayed female Great Pyrenees (dog 1) and a 2-year-old spayed female German Shepherd Dog (dog 2) were evaluated because of gross hematuria of 5 and 2 months' duration, respectively.

CLINICAL FINDINGS In both dogs, coagulation times were within reference limits, results of aerobic bacterial culture of urine samples were negative, echogenic debris could be seen within the urinary bladder ultrasonographically, and hematuric urine could be seen exiting the right ureterovesicular junction, with grossly normal urine exiting the left ureterovesicular junction, during cystoscopy. A diagnosis of idiopathic renal hematuria was made in both dogs.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Both dogs underwent retrograde ureteropyelography, unilateral povidone iodine sclerotherapy, and ureteral stent placement. The right ureter was occluded with a ureteropelvic junction balloon catheter, and a 5% povidone iodine solution was infused into the renal pelvis 3 times. A double-pigtail ureteral stent was then placed. Both dogs recovered without complications, with cessation of gross hematuria within 12 hours. Cystoscopic removal of the ureteral stent was performed in dog 1 after 4 months; at that time, the urine sediment contained 5 to 10 RBCs/hpf. In dog 2, urine sediment contained 50 to 75 RBCs/hpf 2 weeks after sclerotherapy, with continued resolution of gross hematuria 8 weeks after sclerotherapy. The owners declined removal of the stent in dog 2.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that povidone iodine sclerotherapy may be an effective renal-sparing treatment for idiopathic renal hematuria in dogs. Further evaluation with longer follow-up times is warranted.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Bartges' present address is Cornell University Veterinary Specialists, 880 Canal St, Stamford, CT 06902.

Address correspondence to Dr. Adelman (ladelman@utk.edu).