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Evaluation of pyramid training as a method to increase diagnostic sampling capacity during an emergency veterinary response to a swine disease outbreak

Abbey J. CanonSwine Medicine Education Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.

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Nicholas LauterbachSwine Medicine Education Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.

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Jessica BatesSwine Medicine Education Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.

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Kristin SkolandSwine Medicine Education Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.

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Paul ThomasSwine Medicine Education Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.

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Josh EllingsonSwine Medicine Education Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.

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Chelsea RustonSwine Medicine Education Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.

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Mary BreuerSwine Medicine Education Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.

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Kimberlee GerardyDepartment of Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.

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Nicole HershbergerSwine Medicine Education Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.

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Kristen HaymanSwine Medicine Education Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.

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Alexis BuckleySwine Medicine Education Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.

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Derald HoltkampDepartment of Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.

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Locke KarrikerSwine Medicine Education Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To develop and evaluate a pyramid training method for teaching techniques for collection of diagnostic samples from swine.

DESIGN Experimental trial.

SAMPLE 45 veterinary students.

PROCEDURES Participants went through a preinstruction assessment to determine their familiarity with the equipment needed and techniques used to collect samples of blood, nasal secretions, feces, and oral fluid from pigs. Participants were then shown a series of videos illustrating the correct equipment and techniques for collecting samples and were provided hands-on pyramid-based instruction wherein a single swine veterinarian trained 2 or 3 participants on each of the techniques and each of those participants, in turn, trained additional participants. Additional assessments were performed after the instruction was completed.

RESULTS Following the instruction phase, percentages of participants able to collect adequate samples of blood, nasal secretions, feces, and oral fluid increased, as did scores on a written quiz assessing participants' ability to identify the correct equipment, positioning, and procedures for collection of samples.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that the pyramid training method may be a feasible way to rapidly increase diagnostic sampling capacity during an emergency veterinary response to a swine disease outbreak.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To develop and evaluate a pyramid training method for teaching techniques for collection of diagnostic samples from swine.

DESIGN Experimental trial.

SAMPLE 45 veterinary students.

PROCEDURES Participants went through a preinstruction assessment to determine their familiarity with the equipment needed and techniques used to collect samples of blood, nasal secretions, feces, and oral fluid from pigs. Participants were then shown a series of videos illustrating the correct equipment and techniques for collecting samples and were provided hands-on pyramid-based instruction wherein a single swine veterinarian trained 2 or 3 participants on each of the techniques and each of those participants, in turn, trained additional participants. Additional assessments were performed after the instruction was completed.

RESULTS Following the instruction phase, percentages of participants able to collect adequate samples of blood, nasal secretions, feces, and oral fluid increased, as did scores on a written quiz assessing participants' ability to identify the correct equipment, positioning, and procedures for collection of samples.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that the pyramid training method may be a feasible way to rapidly increase diagnostic sampling capacity during an emergency veterinary response to a swine disease outbreak.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Karriker (karriker@iastate.edu).

Dr. Canon's present address is Center for Food Security and Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.