Anesthesia Case of the Month

Erin Wendt-Hornickle Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108.

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Elizabeth Goudie-DeAngelis Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108.

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Caroline Baldo Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108.

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  • 17. Rainger J, Baxter C, Vogelnest LJ, et al. Seizures during medetomindine sedation and local anaesthesia in two dogs undergoing skin biopsy. Aust Vet J 2009; 87: 188192.

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  • 18. Rägo L, MacDonald E, Saano V, et al. The effect of medetomidine on GABA and benzodiazepine receptors in vivo: lack of anxiolytic but some evidence of possible stress-protective activity. Pharmacol Toxicol 1991; 69: 8186.

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  • 19. Homayoun H, Khavandgar S, Dehpour AR. The role of α2-adrenoceptors in the modulatory effects of morphine on seizure susceptibility in mice. Epilepsia 2002; 43: 797804.

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  • 20. Restitutti F, Laitinen MR, Raekallio MR, et al. Effect of MK-467 on organ blood flow parameters detected by contrast-enhanced ultrasound in dogs treated with dexmedetomidine. Vet Anaesth Analg 2013; 40: 4856.

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  • 21. Mather LE, Tucker GT. Properties, absorption and distribution of local anesthetic agents. In: Cousins MJ, Carr DB, Horlocker TT, et al, eds. Neural blockade in clinical anesthesia and pain medicine. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Walters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2015; 4895.

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  • 22. Klotz U. Antiarrhythmics: elimination and dosage considerations in hepatic impairment. Clin Pharmacokinet 2007; 46: 985996.

  • 23. Cattai A, Rabozzi R, Natale V, et al. The incidence of spontaneous movements (myoclonus) in dogs undergoing total intravenous anaesthesia with propofol. Vet Anaesth Analg 2015; 42: 9398.

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  • 24. Borgeat A, Dessibourg C, Popovic V, et al. Propofol and spontaneous movements: an EEG study. Anesthesiology 1991; 74: 2427.

  • 25. Reddy RV, Moorthy SS, Dierdorf SF, et al. Excitatory effects and electroencephalographic correlation of etomidate, thiopental, methohexital, and propofol. Anesth Analg 1993; 77: 10081111.

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  • 26. Yilmaz M, Celebi H, Akcali D, et al. Pre-treatment of bupivacaine-induced cardiovascular depression using different lipid formulations of propofol. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2014; 58: 298302.

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  • 27. Mauch J, Kutter AP, Martin Jurado O, et al. Bupivacaine toxicity and propofol anesthesia: animal study on intravascular bupivacaine injection [in German]. Anaesthesist 2011; 60: 814818.

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  • 28. Weinberg G, Ripper R, Feinstein DL, et al. Lipid emulsion infusion rescues dogs from bupivacaine-induced cardiac toxicity. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2003; 28: 198202.

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  • 29. Kennedy MJ, Smith LJ. Anesthesia case of the month. Accidental lidocaine overdose during surgery for vertebral fractures. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2014; 245: 10981101.

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