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Evaluation of potential risk factors for development of primary angle-closure glaucoma in Bouviers des Flandres

Alexis J. DubinDepartment of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80525.

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Ellison BentleyDepartment of Surgical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706.

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Kevin A. BuhrDepartment of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706.

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Paul E. MillerDepartment of Surgical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706.

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate potential risk factors for development of primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) in Bouviers des Flandres.

DESIGN Prospective, observational study.

ANIMALS 98 Bouviers des Flandres.

PROCEDURES All dogs underwent slit-lamp biomicroscopy, indirect ophthalmoscopy, gonioscopy, applanation tonometry, streak retinoscopy, and A-scan, B-scan, and high-resolution ultrasonography. Iridocorneal angles and degree of pectinate ligament dysplasia sheeting were graded, and an angle index was mathematically derived for each eye on the basis of these values. Ciliary clefts evaluated by high-resolution ultrasonography were classified as open, narrow, or closed. Owners were contacted by telephone 7 to 9 years after the initial examination to determine whether dogs had a subsequent diagnosis of PACG. Relationships between previously recorded variables and the development of PACG were evaluated by logistic regression methods. Available pedigrees were reviewed to assess genetic relationships among affected dogs.

RESULTS 9 of 92 (9.8%) dogs with follow-up information available developed PACG. An angle index < 1 and presence of a narrow or closed ciliary cleft in 1 or both eyes were each significantly associated with development of PACG. Odds of developing PACG for dogs with an angle index < 1 (indicating marked reduction in outflow capacity through the iridocorneal angle), a narrow or closed ciliary cleft in > 1 eye, or both findings were 13, 20, and 28 times those for dogs that did not have these findings, respectively. All dogs that developed PACG shared 1 common male sire or grandsire.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Several anatomic factors were significant risk factors for development of PACG in this population of dogs. Results also suggested a genetic component for the disease.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate potential risk factors for development of primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) in Bouviers des Flandres.

DESIGN Prospective, observational study.

ANIMALS 98 Bouviers des Flandres.

PROCEDURES All dogs underwent slit-lamp biomicroscopy, indirect ophthalmoscopy, gonioscopy, applanation tonometry, streak retinoscopy, and A-scan, B-scan, and high-resolution ultrasonography. Iridocorneal angles and degree of pectinate ligament dysplasia sheeting were graded, and an angle index was mathematically derived for each eye on the basis of these values. Ciliary clefts evaluated by high-resolution ultrasonography were classified as open, narrow, or closed. Owners were contacted by telephone 7 to 9 years after the initial examination to determine whether dogs had a subsequent diagnosis of PACG. Relationships between previously recorded variables and the development of PACG were evaluated by logistic regression methods. Available pedigrees were reviewed to assess genetic relationships among affected dogs.

RESULTS 9 of 92 (9.8%) dogs with follow-up information available developed PACG. An angle index < 1 and presence of a narrow or closed ciliary cleft in 1 or both eyes were each significantly associated with development of PACG. Odds of developing PACG for dogs with an angle index < 1 (indicating marked reduction in outflow capacity through the iridocorneal angle), a narrow or closed ciliary cleft in > 1 eye, or both findings were 13, 20, and 28 times those for dogs that did not have these findings, respectively. All dogs that developed PACG shared 1 common male sire or grandsire.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Several anatomic factors were significant risk factors for development of PACG in this population of dogs. Results also suggested a genetic component for the disease.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Dubin (alexis.dubin@colostate.edu).