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Primary nodal hemangiosarcoma in four dogs

Catherine M. ChanAnimal Referral Hospital, 250 Parramatta Rd, Homebush West, Sydney, NSW 2140, Australia.

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Courtney H. ZwahlenSouthern California Veterinary Specialty Hospital, 1371 Reynolds Ave, Irvine, CA 92614.

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Louis-Philippe de LorimierCentre Vétérinaire Rive-Sud, Une Division du Groupe Vétéri-Médic, 7415 Taschereau Blvd, Brossard, QC J4Y 1A2, Canada.

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Stephen M. YeomansVetnostics Laverty Pathology, 60 Waterloo Rd, North Ryde, Sydney, NSW 2113, Australia.

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Karon L. HoffmannImaging Vets, PO Box 3055, Putney, NSW 2112, Australia.

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Antony S. MooreVeterinary Oncology Consultants, 379 Lake Innes Dr, Wauchope, NSW 2446, Australia.

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Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION 4 dogs with a slow-growing mass in the cervical region were evaluated.

CLINICAL FINDINGS All dogs had no clinical signs at the time of the evaluation. There was no apparent evidence of visceral metastases or other primary tumor based on available CT or MRI data for any dog.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME For each dog, surgery to remove the mass was performed. Histologic examination of the excised tissue revealed a completely excised grade 1 or 2 lymph node hemangiosarcoma. All dogs received adjuvant chemotherapy; 2 dogs underwent curative intent chemotherapy, 1 dog underwent metronomic treatment with cyclophosphamide, and 1 dog underwent metronomic treatment with chlorambucil. The survival time was 259 days in 1 dog; 3 dogs were still alive 615, 399, and 365 days after surgery.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE Primary nodal hemangiosarcoma in dogs is a rare and, to the authors' knowledge, previously undescribed disease that appears to develop in the cervical lymph nodes as a slow-growing mass or masses. Surgical excision and adjunct treatment resulted in long survival times for 3 of the 4 dogs of the present report. Given the aggressive biologic behavior of hemangiosarcomas in other body locations, adjunct chemotherapy should be considered for affected dogs, although its role in the cases described in this report was unclear. Additional clinical information is required to further characterize the biologic behavior of this tumor type and determine the expected survival times and associated risk factors in dogs.

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION 4 dogs with a slow-growing mass in the cervical region were evaluated.

CLINICAL FINDINGS All dogs had no clinical signs at the time of the evaluation. There was no apparent evidence of visceral metastases or other primary tumor based on available CT or MRI data for any dog.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME For each dog, surgery to remove the mass was performed. Histologic examination of the excised tissue revealed a completely excised grade 1 or 2 lymph node hemangiosarcoma. All dogs received adjuvant chemotherapy; 2 dogs underwent curative intent chemotherapy, 1 dog underwent metronomic treatment with cyclophosphamide, and 1 dog underwent metronomic treatment with chlorambucil. The survival time was 259 days in 1 dog; 3 dogs were still alive 615, 399, and 365 days after surgery.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE Primary nodal hemangiosarcoma in dogs is a rare and, to the authors' knowledge, previously undescribed disease that appears to develop in the cervical lymph nodes as a slow-growing mass or masses. Surgical excision and adjunct treatment resulted in long survival times for 3 of the 4 dogs of the present report. Given the aggressive biologic behavior of hemangiosarcomas in other body locations, adjunct chemotherapy should be considered for affected dogs, although its role in the cases described in this report was unclear. Additional clinical information is required to further characterize the biologic behavior of this tumor type and determine the expected survival times and associated risk factors in dogs.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Chan's present address is Queensland Veterinary Specialists, 53 Flinders Parade, North Lakes, Brisbane, QLD 4509, Australia.

Address correspondence to Dr. Chan (catherine.tran@uqconnect.edu.au).