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Effects of perioperative topical dorzolamide hydrochloride–timolol maleate administration on incidence and severity of postoperative ocular hypertension in dogs undergoing cataract extraction by phacoemulsification

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  • 1 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061.
  • | 2 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061.
  • | 3 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061.
  • | 4 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061.
  • | 5 Laboratory for Study Design and Statistical Analysis, Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of topically applied 2% dorzolamide hydrochloride–0.5% timolol maleate ophthalmic solution (DHTM) on incidence and severity of postoperative ocular hypertension (POH; ie, intraocular pressure [IOP] > 25 mm Hg) in dogs undergoing cataract extraction by phacoemulsification.

DESIGN Randomized, masked, controlled study.

ANIMALS 103 dogs (180 eyes).

PROCEDURES Pertinent history, signalment, and ophthalmic examination findings were recorded. Dogs received 1 drop of DHTM or sham treatment solution (sterile, buffered, isotonic eye drops) in both eyes 14 hours and 2 hours before anesthetic induction and at the time of corneal incision closure (ie, end of surgery); IOPs were assessed by rebound tonometry 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours after surgery and between 7:30 and 8:00 am on the following day. Dogs with IOPs of 26 to 45 mm Hg received 1 drop of 0.005% latanoprost solution topically; the surgeon's treatment of choice was used for dogs with IOPs > 45 mm Hg. Incidence of POH and postoperative IOPs were compared between treatment groups.

RESULTS DHTM treatment resulted in significantly lower incidence of POH than did sham treatment at the level of the dog (18/53 [34%] vs 31/50 [62%]) and the eye (24/94 [26%] vs 42/86 [48%]). Mean IOP did not differ between groups at the time of POH detection. The DHTM-treated eyes that developed POH were significantly more likely to have a 1-hour follow-up IOP < 25 mm Hg after latanoprost administration than were sham-treated eyes (19/25 [76%] vs 18/35 [51%]; OR, 3.87).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Multidose perioperative administration of DHTM in dogs undergoing phacoemulsification reduced the incidence of POH and improved responsiveness of POH to latanoprost treatment.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Matusow's present address is Cornell University Veterinary Specialists, 880 Canal St, Stamford, CT 06901.

Address correspondence to Dr. Matusow (rachel.matusow@gmail.com).