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Epidemiological, clinical, and echocardiographic features and survival times of dogs and cats with tetralogy of Fallot: 31 cases (2003–2014)

Valérie ChetboulUnité de Cardiologie d'Alfort, Université Paris-Est, École Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 94704 Maisons-Alfort cedex, France.
INSERM U955, Equipe 03, 51 avenue du maréchal de Lattre de Tassigny, 94010 Créteil cedex, France.

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Isabelle PitschUnité de Cardiologie d'Alfort, Université Paris-Est, École Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 94704 Maisons-Alfort cedex, France.
Centre Hospitalier Vétérinaire des Cordeliers, 29 avenue du maréchal Joffre, 77100 Meaux, France.

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Renaud TissierUnité de Pharmacie-Toxicologie, Université Paris-Est, École Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 94704 Maisons-Alfort cedex, France.
INSERM U955, Equipe 03, 51 avenue du maréchal de Lattre de Tassigny, 94010 Créteil cedex, France.

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Vassiliki GouniUnité de Cardiologie d'Alfort, Université Paris-Est, École Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 94704 Maisons-Alfort cedex, France.

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Charlotte MisbachUnité de Cardiologie d'Alfort, Université Paris-Est, École Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 94704 Maisons-Alfort cedex, France.

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Emilie Trehiou-SechiUnité de Cardiologie d'Alfort, Université Paris-Est, École Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 94704 Maisons-Alfort cedex, France.

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Amandine M. PetitUnité de Cardiologie d'Alfort, Université Paris-Est, École Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 94704 Maisons-Alfort cedex, France.

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Cécile DamoiseauxUnité de Cardiologie d'Alfort, Université Paris-Est, École Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 94704 Maisons-Alfort cedex, France.

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Jean-Louis PouchelonUnité de Cardiologie d'Alfort, Université Paris-Est, École Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 94704 Maisons-Alfort cedex, France.
INSERM U955, Equipe 03, 51 avenue du maréchal de Lattre de Tassigny, 94010 Créteil cedex, France.

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Loïc DesquilbetDepartment of Biostatistics and Clinical Epidemiology, Université Paris-Est, École Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 94704 Maisons-Alfort cedex, France.

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Eric BomassiCentre Hospitalier Vétérinaire des Cordeliers, 29 avenue du maréchal Joffre, 77100 Meaux, France.

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To characterize the epidemiological, clinical, and echocardiographic features of dogs and cats with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) and determine their survival times.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 15 dogs and 16 cats with a diagnosis of TOF as determined via echocardiography.

PROCEDURES Medical records of dogs and cats were reviewed to extract information on signalment, clinical status at the time of TOF diagnosis, echocardiographic findings, and any outcome data.

RESULTS The most common canine breeds were terrier types (n = 7). Most animals (28/31 [90%]) had clinical signs of TOF at the time of diagnosis, including cyanosis (16/31 [52%]). Pulmonic stenosis was characterized by a variable systolic Doppler-derived pressure gradient (median [range], 108 mm Hg [26 to 255 mm Hg]). Most ventricular septal defects were large, with a median (range) ratio of the diameter of the ventricular septal defect to that of the aorta of 0.60 (0.18 to 1.15). Median age at cardiac-related death was 23.4 months, with no significant difference between dogs and cats. Median survival time from TOF diagnosis to cardiac-related death was briefer for animals with no or low-grade heart murmur (3.4 months) than for those with higher-grade heart murmur (16.4 months). After adjustment for age and sex, having a lack of or a low- to mild-grade systolic heart murmur was significantly associated with a briefer survival time.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE With a few exceptions, cardiac-related death occurred predominantly in young adult dogs and cats with TOF, and most animals had severe clinical signs at the time of TOF diagnosis.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To characterize the epidemiological, clinical, and echocardiographic features of dogs and cats with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) and determine their survival times.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 15 dogs and 16 cats with a diagnosis of TOF as determined via echocardiography.

PROCEDURES Medical records of dogs and cats were reviewed to extract information on signalment, clinical status at the time of TOF diagnosis, echocardiographic findings, and any outcome data.

RESULTS The most common canine breeds were terrier types (n = 7). Most animals (28/31 [90%]) had clinical signs of TOF at the time of diagnosis, including cyanosis (16/31 [52%]). Pulmonic stenosis was characterized by a variable systolic Doppler-derived pressure gradient (median [range], 108 mm Hg [26 to 255 mm Hg]). Most ventricular septal defects were large, with a median (range) ratio of the diameter of the ventricular septal defect to that of the aorta of 0.60 (0.18 to 1.15). Median age at cardiac-related death was 23.4 months, with no significant difference between dogs and cats. Median survival time from TOF diagnosis to cardiac-related death was briefer for animals with no or low-grade heart murmur (3.4 months) than for those with higher-grade heart murmur (16.4 months). After adjustment for age and sex, having a lack of or a low- to mild-grade systolic heart murmur was significantly associated with a briefer survival time.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE With a few exceptions, cardiac-related death occurred predominantly in young adult dogs and cats with TOF, and most animals had severe clinical signs at the time of TOF diagnosis.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Chetboul (valerie.chetboul@vet-alfort.fr).