• 1. Carter SM, Rogers W, Heath I, et al. The challenge of overdiagnosis begins with its definition. BMJ 2015; 350:h869.

  • 2. Morgan DJ, Brownlee S, Leppin AL, et al. Setting a research agenda for medical overuse. BMJ 2015; 351:h4534.

  • 3. Welch HG, Schwartz LM, Woloshin S. Overdiagnosed: making people sick in pursuit of health. Boston: Beacon Press, 2011.

  • 4. Loeb S, Bjurlin MA, Nicholson J, et al. Overdiagnosis and overtreatment of prostate cancer. Eur Urol 2014; 65:10461055.

  • 5. Brownlee S. Overtreated: why too much medicine is making us sicker and poorer. New York: Bloomsbury, 2007.

  • 6. Moynihan R, Doust J, Henry D. Preventing overdiagnosis: how to stop harming the healthy. BMJ 2012; 344:e3502.

  • 7. Preventing Overdiagnosis. Conference information 2013–2016. Available at: www.preventingoverdiagnosis.net. Accessed Jan 8, 2016.

  • 8. BMJ. Too Much Medicine Campaign. Available at: www.bmj.com/too-much-medicine. Accessed Jan 8, 2016.

  • 9. JAMA. Less Is More Topic Collection. Available at: www.jamanetwork.com. Accessed Jan 8, 2016.

  • 10. Choosing Wisely. Available at: www.choosingwisely.org. Accessed Jan 8, 2016.

  • 11. Moyer VA. Screening for prostate cancer: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med 2012; 157:120134.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for breast cancer: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med 2009; 151:716726.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Welch HG, Black WC. Overdiagnosis in cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 2010; 102:605613.

  • 14. Draisma G, Etzioni R, Tsodikov A, et al. Lead time and overdiagnosis in prostate-specific antigen screening: importance of methods and context. J Natl Cancer Inst 2009; 101:374383.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Wever EM, Draisma G, Heijnskijk EA, et al. Prostate-specific antigen screening in the United States vs in the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer-Rotterdam. J Natl Cancer Inst 2010; 102:352355.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Ballentine Carter H, Albertsen PC, Barry MJ, et al. Early detection of prostate cancer; AUA guideline. J Urol 2013; 190:419426.

  • 17. Harding C, Pompei F, Burmistrov D, et al. Breast cancer screening, incidence, and mortality across US counties. JAMA Intern Med 2015; 175:14831489.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Jorgensen KJ, Gotzsche PC. Overdiagnosis in publicly organised mammography screening programmes: systematic review of incidence trends. BMJ 2009; 339:b2587.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Loberg M, Lousdal ML, Kalager M. Benefits and harms of mammography screening. Breast Cancer Res 2015; 17:63.

  • 20. McDonald JM, Modesitt SC. The incidental postmenopausal adnexal mass. Clin Obstet Gynecol 2006; 49:506516.

  • 21. Ong M, Mandl KD. National expenditure for false-positive mammograms and breast cancer overdiagnoses estimated at $4 billion a year. Health Aff (Millwood) 2015; 34:576583.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22. Martin SA, Boucher M, Wright JM, et al. Mild hypertension in people at low risk. BMJ 2014; 349:g5432.

  • 23. Heijnsdijk EA, Wever EM, Auvinen A, et al. Quality-of-life effects of prostate-specific antigen screening. N Engl J Med 2012; 367:595605.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. Fall K, Fang F, Mucci LA, et al. Immediate risk for cardiovascular events and suicide following a prostate cancer diagnosis: prospective cohort study. PLoS Med 2009; 6:e1000197.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25. Hoffman JR, Kanzaria HK. Intolerance of error and culture of blame drive medical excess. BMJ 2014; 349:g5702.

  • 26. Coon ER, Quinonez RA, Moyer VA, et al. Overdiagnosis: how our compulsion for diagnosis may be harming children. Pediatrics 2014; 134:111.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27. Merrill JM, Lorimor RJ, Thornby JI, et al. Reliance on high technology among senior medical students. Am J Med Sci 1998; 315:3539.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28. van der Weijden T, van Bokhoven MA, Dinant GJ, et al. Understanding laboratory testing in diagnostic uncertainty: a qualitative study in general practice. Br J Gen Pract 2002; 52:974980.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29. Lysdahl KB, Hofmann BM. What causes increasing and unnecessary use of radiological investigations? A survey of radiologists’ perceptions. BMC Health Serv Res 2009; 9:155.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30. Black W. Advances in radiology and the real versus apparent effects of early diagnosis. Eur J Radiol 1998; 27:116122.

  • 31. McKenzie BA. Veterinary clinical decision-making: cognitive biases, external constraints, and strategies for improvement. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2014; 44:271276.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32. Nevalainen M, Kuikka L, Sjoberg L, et al. Tolerance of uncertainty and fears of making mistakes among fifth-year medical students. Fam Med 2012; 44:240246.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33. Samadian S, Farhat A. Problem based learning, litigation, and EWTD contribute to too much medicine. BMJ 2013; 347:f4790.

  • 34. Woodward C, Ferrier B, Goldsmith C, et al. Billing patterns of general practitioner and family physicians in Ontario: a comparison of graduates of McMaster Medical School with graduates of other Ontario medical schools. Res Med Educ 1988; 27:276281.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35. Emanuel EJ, Fuchs VR. The perfect storm of overutilization. JAMA 2008; 299:27892791.

  • 36. Schwartz LM, Woloshin S, Fowler FJ, et al. Enthusiasm for cancer screening in the United States. JAMA 2004; 291:7178.

  • 37. Mehrotra A, Hussey PS, Milstein A, et al. Consumers’ and providers’ responses to public cost reports, and how to raise the likelihood of achieving desired results. Health Aff (Millwood) 2012; 31:843851.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38. Karman KL, Maurer M, Yegian JM, et al. Evidence that consumers are skeptical about evidence-based health care. Health Aff 2010; 29:14001406.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39. Mitchell JM. Utilization trends for advanced imaging procedures: evidence from individuals with private insurance coverage in California. Med Care 2008; 46:460466.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40. Mitchell JM. Effect of physician ownership of specialty hospitals and ambulatory surgery centers on frequency of use of outpatient orthopedic surgery. Arch Surg 2010; 145:732738.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41. Mitchell JM. Urologists’ self-referral for pathology of biopsy specimens linked to increased use and lower prostate cancer detection. Health Aff 2012; 31:741749.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42. Als-Nielsen B, Chen W, Gluud C, et al. Association of funding and conclusions in randomized drug trials: a reflection of treatment effect or adverse events? JAMA 2003; 290:921928.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43. Neuman J, Korenstein D, Ross JS, et al. Prevalence of financial conflicts of interest among panel members producing clinical practice guidelines in Canada and United States: cross sectional study. BMJ 2011; 343:d5621.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44. Levin DC, Rao VM. Turf wars in radiology: updated evidence on the relationship between self-referral and the overutilization of imaging. J Am Coll Radiol 2008; 5:806810.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45. Gazelle GS, Halpern EF, Ryan HS, et al. Utilization of diagnostic medical imaging: comparison of radiologist referral versus same-specialty referral. Radiology 2007; 245:517522.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46. Glasziou P, Moynihan R, Richards T, et al. Too much medicine; too little care. BMJ 2013; 347:f4247

  • 47. Tremayne J. Economic euthanasia on the rise. Veterinary Practice News June 10, 2009. Available at: veterinarypracticenews.com. Accessed Jan 8, 2016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48. Munro J, Booth A, Nichol J. Routine preoperative testing: a systematic review of the evidence. Health Technol Assess 1997; 1(12):162.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49. Kumar A, Srivastava U. Role of routine laboratory investigations in preoperative evaluation. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol 2011; 27;174179.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50. Lewis HB. Healthy pets benefit from blood work. Banfield Data Savant. Available at: www.banfield.com/getmedia/1216c698-7da1-4899-81a3-24ab549b7a8c/2_1-Healthy-Pets-benefit-from-blood-work. Accessed Jan 8, 2016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 51. Irwin J. Do tests first: pre-surgical blood work may eliminate variety of surprises. DVM 360 Nov 1, 2003.

  • 52. IDEXX Laboratories. Preanesthetic testing: don't compromise—change happens fast. Available at: www.idexx.com.au/smallanimal/inhouse/preanesthetic-testing.html. Accessed Jan 8, 2016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 53. Ward E. Ask the expert: preanesthetic testing in private practice. NAVC Clinician's Brief. January 2010. Available at: www.cliniciansbrief.com/sites/default/files/sites/cliniciansbrief.com/files/PreanestheticTestingPrivatePractice.pdf. Accessed Jan 8, 2016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 54. Alef M, Praun F, von Oechtering G. Is routine pre-anaesthetic haematological and biochemical screening justified in dogs? Vet Anaesth Analg 2008; 35:132140.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 55. Joubert KE. Pre-anaesthetic screening of geriatric dogs. J S Afr Vet Assoc 2007; 78:3135.

  • 56. Paepe D, Verjans J, Duchateau L, et al. Routine health screening: findings in apparently healthy middle-aged and old cats. J Feline Med Surg 2013; 15:819.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Overdiagnosis

Brennen A. McKenzie MA, MSc, VMD1
View More View Less
  • 1 Adobe Animal Hospital, 4470 El Camino Real, Los Altos, CA 94022.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. McKenzie (mckenzievmd@gmail.com).