• 1. Ballweber LR, Xiao L, Bowman DD, et al. Giardiasis in dogs and cats: update on epidemiology and public health significance. Trends Parasitol 2010;26:180189.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Covacin C, Aucoin DP, Elliot A, et al. Genotypic characterisation of Giardia from domestic dogs in the USA. Vet Parasitol 2011;177:2832.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Scaramozzino P, Di Cave D, Berrilli F, et al. A study of the prevalence and genotypes of Giardia duodenalis infecting kennelled dogs. Vet J 2009;182:231234.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Thompson RC, Palmer CS, O'Handley R. The public health and clinical significance of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in domestic animals. Vet J 2008;177:1825.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Carlin EP, Bowman DD, Scarlett JM, et al. Prevalence of Giardia in symptomatic dogs and cats throughout the United States as determined by the IDEXX SNAP Giardia test. Vet Ther 2006;7:199206.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Leib MS, Zajac AM. Giardiasis in dogs and cats. Vet Med 1999;94:793802.

  • 7. Payne PA, Artzer M. The biology and control of Giardia spp and Tritrichomonas foetus. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2009;39:9931007.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Tangtrongsup S, Scorza V. Update on the diagnosis and management of Giardia spp infections in dogs and cats. Top Companion Anim Med 2010;25:155162.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Claerebout E, Casaert S, Dalemans AC, et al. Giardia and other intestinal parasites in different dog populations in Northern Belgium. Vet Parasitol 2009;161:4146.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Upjohn M, Cobb C, Monger J, et al. Prevalence, molecular typing and risk factor analysis for Giardia duodenalis infections in dogs in a central London rescue shelter. Vet Parasitol 2010;172:341346.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Meireles P, Montiani-Ferreira F, Thomaz-Soccol V. Survey of giardiosis in household and shelter dogs from metropolitan areas of Curitiba, Paraná state, Southern Brazil. Vet Parasitol 2008;152:242248.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Dado D, Montoya A, Blanco MA, et al. Prevalence and genotypes of Giardia duodenalis from dogs in Spain: possible zoonotic transmission and public health importance. Parasitol Res 2012;111:24192422.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Feng Y, Xiao L. Zoonotic potential and molecular epidemiology of Giardia species and giardiasis. Clin Microbiol Rev 2011;24:110140.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Sprong H, Caccio SM, van der Giessen JW, et al. Identification of zoonotic genotypes of Giardia duodenalis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2009;3:e558.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Itagaki T, Kinoshita S, Aoki M, et al. Genotyping of Giardia intestinalis from domestic and wild animals in Japan using glutamete dehydrogenase gene sequencing. Vet Parasitol 2005;133:283287.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Leonhard S, Pfister K, Beelitz P, et al. The molecular characterisation of Giardia from dogs in southern Germany. Vet Parasitol 2007;150:3338.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Bowman DD, Lucio-Forster A. Cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis in dogs and cats: veterinary and public health importance. Exp Parasitol 2010;124:121127.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Berrilli F, Di Cave D, De Liberato C, et al. Genotype characterisation of Giardia duodenalis isolates from domestic and farm animals by SSU-rRNA gene sequencing. Vet Parasitol 2004;122:193199.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Szénási Z, Marton S, Kucsera I, et al. Preliminary investigation of the prevalence and genotype distribution of Giardia intestinalis in dogs in Hungary. Parasitol Res 2007;101(suppl 1):S145S152.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. Barr SC, Bowman DD, Frongillo MF, et al. Efficacy of a drug combination of praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel against giardiasis in dogs. Am J Vet Res 1998;59:11341136.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. Barr SC, Bowman DD, Heller RL. Efficacy of fenbendazole against giardiasis in dogs. Am J Vet Res 1994;55:988990.

  • 22. Fiechter R, Deplazes P, Schnyder M. Control of Giardia infections with ronidazole and intensive hygiene management in a dog kennel. Vet Parasitol 2012;187:9398.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23. Payne PA, Ridley RK, Dryden MW, et al. Efficacy of a combination febantel-praziquantel-pyrantel product, with or without vaccination with a commercial Giardia vaccine, for treatment of dogs with naturally occurring giardiasis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:330333.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. Bowman DD. Georgis’ parasitology for veterinarians. 10th ed. St Louis: Elsevier, 2014; 9294.

  • 25. Zajac AM, LaBranche TP, Donoghue AR, et al. Efficacy of fenbendazole in the treatment of experimental Giardia infection in dogs. Am J Vet Res 1998;59:6163.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26. Decock C, Cadiergues MC, Roques M, et al. Evaluation of four treatments of canine giardiasis. Rev Med Vet (Toulouse) 2003;154:763766.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27. Zimmer JF, Burrington DB. Comparison of four protocols for the treatment of canine giardiasis. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1986;22:168172.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28. Boreham PFL, Phillips RE, Shepherd RW. A comparison of the in-vitro activity of some 5-nitroimidazoles and other compounds against Giardia intestinalis. J Antimicrob Chemother 1985;16:589595.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29. Boreham PFL, Phillips RE, Shepherd RW. The activity of drugs against Giardia intestinalis in neonatal mice. J Antimicrob Chemother 1986;18:393398.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30. Zajac AM, Conboy GA. Veterinary clinical parasitology. 8th ed. Chichester, West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons Inc, 2012; 48.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31. Alles AJ, Waldron MA, Sierra LS, et al. Prospective comparison of direct immunofluorescence and conventional staining methods for detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. in human fecal specimens. J Clin Microbiol 1995;33:16321634.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32. Geurden T, Berkvens D, Casaert S, et al. A Bayesian evaluation of three diagnostic assays for the detection of Giardia duodenalis in symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs. Vet Parasitol 2008;157:1420.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33. Hopkins RM, Meloni BP, Groth DM, et al. Ribosomal RNA sequencing reveals differences between the genotypes of Giardia isolates recovered from humans and dogs living in the same locality. J Parasitol 1997;83:4451.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34. Scorza AV, Ballweber LR, Tangtrongsup S, et al. Comparisons of mammalian Giardia duodenalis assemblages based on the beta-giardin, glutamate dehydrogenase and triose phosphate isomerase genes. Vet Parasitol 2012;189:182188.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35. Santin M, Dargatz D, Fayer R. Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis assemblages in weaned cattle on cow-calf operations in the United States. Vet Parasitol 2012;183:231236.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36. Appelbee AJ, Frederick LM, Heitman TL, et al. Prevalence and genotyping of Giardia duodenalis from beef calves in Alberta, Canada. Vet Parasitol 2003;112:289294.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37. Agresti A. Categorical data analysis. New York: Wiley, 1990; 244250.

  • 38. Leib MS, Zajac AM. Giardia: diagnosis and treatment. In: Bonagura JD, ed. Kirk's current veterinary therapy XII: small animal practice. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1995; 716720.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39. Kahn CM. Merck veterinary manual. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck, 2010; 190192.

  • 40. Tsukazaki N, Nonaka S, Ohgami T, et al. The synergistic effect of chlorinated chemicals (trichlorosalicylanilid, 4-chlorom-cresol, trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, trichloroethanol, trichloromethiazide, trichlorofon and trichloroacetaldehyde) and low concentrations of griseofulvin on porphyrin metabolism. Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi 1991;82:215220.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41. Erickson MC, Ortega YR. Inactivation of protozoan parasites in food, water, and environmental systems. J Food Prot 2006;69:27862808.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42. Olson ME, Goh J, Phillips M, et al. Giardia cyst and Cryptosporidium oocyst survival in water, soil, and cattle feces. J Environ Qual 1999;28:19911996.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43. Greig JD, Michel P, Wilson JB, et al. A descriptive analysis of giardiasis cases reported in Ontario, 1990–1998. Can J Public Health 2001;92:361365.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44. Naumova EN, Chen JT, Griffiths JK, et al. Use of passive surveillance data to study temporal and spatial variation in the incidence of giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis. Public Health Rep 2000;115:436447.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45. Naumova EN, Jagai JS, Matyas B, et al. Seasonality in six enterically transmitted diseases and ambient temperature. Epidemiol Infect 2007;135:281292.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46. Ponce-Macotela M, Peralta-Abarca GE, Martínez-Gordillo MN. Giardia intestinalis and other zoonotic parasites: prevalence in adult dogs from the southern part of Mexico City. Vet Parasitol 2005;131:14.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Development and evaluation of a protocol for control of Giardia duodenalis in a colony of group-housed dogs at a veterinary medical college

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061.
  • | 2 Department of Academic Affairs, Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061.
  • | 3 Department of Academic Affairs, Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061.
  • | 4 Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To develop and evaluate a protocol for control of Giardia duodenalis in naturally infected group-housed dogs at a veterinary medical college.

DESIGN Prospective evaluation study.

ANIMALS 34 dogs.

PROCEDURES All dogs were tested for evidence of G duodenalis infection. Dogs were treated with fenbendazole on study days 1 through 10. On day 5, dogs were bathed and moved into clean, disinfected kennels in a different room to allow for disinfection and drying of their assigned kennels at 26.7°C (80°F) for 24 hours on day 6. After treatment, dogs were returned to their original housing; fecal samples were collected weekly from days 8 through 41 and then every 3 weeks until day 209. Samples were fixed in formalin and examined by direct immunofluorescence assay. Additionally, 1 pretreatment sample underwent PCR assay and DNA sequencing to determine the assemblage (genotype) of the organism. Normal handling routines for the dogs and their use in teaching activities were not changed.

RESULTS Initially, all dogs in the colony shed G duodenalis cysts. During and immediately after treatment (days 8 and 13), no cysts were detected in any dogs. On day 20, 1 cyst was observed in the fecal sample from 1 dog; results for all subsequent fecal analyses were negative. The G duodenalis cysts collected from the pretreatment sample had an assemblage C genotype.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The integrated protocol was successful in controlling G duodenalis infection in this dog colony, despite exposure of dogs to a variety of environments and frequent handling by multiple individuals. Sequence analysis identified an assemblage typically found in dogs but not in people, indicating that zoonotic transmission would be unlikely.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To develop and evaluate a protocol for control of Giardia duodenalis in naturally infected group-housed dogs at a veterinary medical college.

DESIGN Prospective evaluation study.

ANIMALS 34 dogs.

PROCEDURES All dogs were tested for evidence of G duodenalis infection. Dogs were treated with fenbendazole on study days 1 through 10. On day 5, dogs were bathed and moved into clean, disinfected kennels in a different room to allow for disinfection and drying of their assigned kennels at 26.7°C (80°F) for 24 hours on day 6. After treatment, dogs were returned to their original housing; fecal samples were collected weekly from days 8 through 41 and then every 3 weeks until day 209. Samples were fixed in formalin and examined by direct immunofluorescence assay. Additionally, 1 pretreatment sample underwent PCR assay and DNA sequencing to determine the assemblage (genotype) of the organism. Normal handling routines for the dogs and their use in teaching activities were not changed.

RESULTS Initially, all dogs in the colony shed G duodenalis cysts. During and immediately after treatment (days 8 and 13), no cysts were detected in any dogs. On day 20, 1 cyst was observed in the fecal sample from 1 dog; results for all subsequent fecal analyses were negative. The G duodenalis cysts collected from the pretreatment sample had an assemblage C genotype.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The integrated protocol was successful in controlling G duodenalis infection in this dog colony, despite exposure of dogs to a variety of environments and frequent handling by multiple individuals. Sequence analysis identified an assemblage typically found in dogs but not in people, indicating that zoonotic transmission would be unlikely.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Zajac (azajac@vt.edu).