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Treatment of sarcoids in equids: 230 cases (2008–2013)

Maarten HaspeslaghDepartment of Surgery and Anaesthesiology of Domestic Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium.

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Lieven E. M. VlaminckDepartment of Surgery and Anaesthesiology of Domestic Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium.

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Ann M. MartensDepartment of Surgery and Anaesthesiology of Domestic Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium.

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate outcomes following treatment of sarcoids in equids and to identify risk factors for treatment failure in these patients.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 230 equids with 614 sarcoids.

PROCEDURES Records were searched to identify equids treated for ≥ 1 sarcoid between 2008 and 2013. A standardized protocol was used to determine treatment choice (electrosurgery, electrosurgery with intralesional placement of cisplatin-containing beads, topical administration of imiquimod or acyclovir, cryosurgery, bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine injection, or intralesional injection of platinum-containing drugs). Data regarding animal, tumor, treatment, and outcome variables were collected. Complete tumor regression without recurrence for ≥ 6 months was considered a successful outcome. Success rates were calculated; binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for treatment failure and to compare effects of the 2 topical treatments. A χ2 test was used to compare effects of the number of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine or cisplatin-containing drug injections on outcome.

RESULTS The overall success rate was 460 of 614 (74.9%). Electrosurgical excision resulted in the highest treatment success rate (277/319 [86.8%]); odds of treatment failure were significantly greater for intralesional injection of platinum-containing drugs, cryosurgery, and topical acyclovir treatment. Odds of treatment failure were also significantly greater for sarcoids on equids with multiple tumors than for solitary lesions, and significantly lower for sarcoids on equids that received concurrent immunostimulating treatment for another sarcoid than for those on patients that did not receive such treatment.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Selection bias for treatments was inherent to the study design; however, results may assist clinicians in selecting treatments and in determining prognosis for equids with sarcoids treated according to the described methods.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate outcomes following treatment of sarcoids in equids and to identify risk factors for treatment failure in these patients.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 230 equids with 614 sarcoids.

PROCEDURES Records were searched to identify equids treated for ≥ 1 sarcoid between 2008 and 2013. A standardized protocol was used to determine treatment choice (electrosurgery, electrosurgery with intralesional placement of cisplatin-containing beads, topical administration of imiquimod or acyclovir, cryosurgery, bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine injection, or intralesional injection of platinum-containing drugs). Data regarding animal, tumor, treatment, and outcome variables were collected. Complete tumor regression without recurrence for ≥ 6 months was considered a successful outcome. Success rates were calculated; binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for treatment failure and to compare effects of the 2 topical treatments. A χ2 test was used to compare effects of the number of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine or cisplatin-containing drug injections on outcome.

RESULTS The overall success rate was 460 of 614 (74.9%). Electrosurgical excision resulted in the highest treatment success rate (277/319 [86.8%]); odds of treatment failure were significantly greater for intralesional injection of platinum-containing drugs, cryosurgery, and topical acyclovir treatment. Odds of treatment failure were also significantly greater for sarcoids on equids with multiple tumors than for solitary lesions, and significantly lower for sarcoids on equids that received concurrent immunostimulating treatment for another sarcoid than for those on patients that did not receive such treatment.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Selection bias for treatments was inherent to the study design; however, results may assist clinicians in selecting treatments and in determining prognosis for equids with sarcoids treated according to the described methods.

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary Table S1 (PDF 54 kb)

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Haspeslagh (maarten.haspeslagh@ugent.be).