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Comparison of body condition score and urinalysis variables between dogs with and without calcium oxalate uroliths

Stephanie M. KennedyDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108.

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Jody P. LulichDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108.

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Michelle G. RittDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108.

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Eva FurrowDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108.

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare body condition score (BCS) and urinalysis variables between dogs with and without calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths.

DESIGN Case-control study.

ANIMALS 46 Miniature Schnauzers, 16 Bichons Frises, and 6 Shih Tzus.

PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed for Miniature Schnauzers, Bichons Frises, and Shih Tzus that were examined between January 2001 and November 2014 for another urolithiasis study or for a urolith removal procedure. Dogs with CaOx uroliths were classified as cases. Dogs without a history of urinary tract disease and with no evidence of radiopaque uroliths on abdominal radiographs were classified as controls. Each case was matched with 1 control on the basis of age (± 2 years), sex, and breed. Body condition score and urinalysis results were compared between cases and controls, and the relationship between BCS and urine pH was analyzed.

RESULTS Median BCS was significantly greater for cases than controls, although the proportion of overweight dogs did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. Urine pH was negatively associated with age, but was not associated with BCS or the presence of CaOx uroliths. Cases infrequently had acidic urine or CaOx crystalluria but frequently had hematuria and proteinuria.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that dogs with CaOx uroliths had a greater median BCS than control dogs, but the clinical importance of that finding was unclear. Acidic urine and CaOx crystalluria were uncommon and not adequate predictors of CaOx urolith status. Hematuria and proteinuria were commonly observed in dogs with CaOx urolithiasis, but they are not pathognomonic for that condition.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare body condition score (BCS) and urinalysis variables between dogs with and without calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths.

DESIGN Case-control study.

ANIMALS 46 Miniature Schnauzers, 16 Bichons Frises, and 6 Shih Tzus.

PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed for Miniature Schnauzers, Bichons Frises, and Shih Tzus that were examined between January 2001 and November 2014 for another urolithiasis study or for a urolith removal procedure. Dogs with CaOx uroliths were classified as cases. Dogs without a history of urinary tract disease and with no evidence of radiopaque uroliths on abdominal radiographs were classified as controls. Each case was matched with 1 control on the basis of age (± 2 years), sex, and breed. Body condition score and urinalysis results were compared between cases and controls, and the relationship between BCS and urine pH was analyzed.

RESULTS Median BCS was significantly greater for cases than controls, although the proportion of overweight dogs did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. Urine pH was negatively associated with age, but was not associated with BCS or the presence of CaOx uroliths. Cases infrequently had acidic urine or CaOx crystalluria but frequently had hematuria and proteinuria.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that dogs with CaOx uroliths had a greater median BCS than control dogs, but the clinical importance of that finding was unclear. Acidic urine and CaOx crystalluria were uncommon and not adequate predictors of CaOx urolith status. Hematuria and proteinuria were commonly observed in dogs with CaOx urolithiasis, but they are not pathognomonic for that condition.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Kennedy's present address is Holland Military Working Dog Hospital, Lackland Airforce Base, TX 78236.

Address correspondence to Dr. Furrow (furro004@umn.edu).