• 1. Bishop SP. Embryologic development: the heart and great vessels. In: Fox PR, Sisson D, Moïse NS, eds. Textbook of canine and feline cardiology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1999; 39.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Kittleson MD. Cardiac embryology and anatomy. In: Kittleson MD, Kienle RD, eds. Small animal cardiovascular medicine. St Louis: Mosby, 1998; 14.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Kittleson MD. Ventricular septal defect. In: Kittleson MD, Kienle RD, eds. Small animal cardiovascular medicine. St Louis: Mosby, 1998; 233239.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Chen H, Xu Z, Wang S, et al. Eisenmenger ventricular septal defect: classification, morphology, and indications for surgery. Pediatr Cardiol 2011; 32: 1723.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Van Praagh R, Geva T, Kreutzer J. Ventricular septal defect: how shall we describe, name and classify them? J Am Coll Cardiol 1989; 14: 12981299.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Kouchokos NT, Blackstone EH, Doty DB, et al. Ventricular septal defect. In: Park M, ed. Kirklin/Barratt-Boyes cardiac surgery. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone Inc, 2003; 850888.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Minette MS, Sahn DJ. Ventricular septal defects. Circulation 2006; 114: 21902197.

  • 8. Mitchell SC, Korones SB, Berendes HW. Congenital heart disease in 56109 births: incidence and natural history. Circulation 1971; 43: 323332.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Aguilar NE, Lopez Eugenio J. Ventricular septal defects. Bol Asoc Med P R 2009; 101: 2329.

  • 10. Houyel L, Khoshnood B, Anderson RH, et al. Population-based evaluation of a suggested anatomic and clinical classification of congenital heart defects based on the International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code. Orphanet J Rare Dis 2011; 6: 64.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Penny DJ, Vick WG. Ventricular septal defect. Lancet 2011; 377: 11031112.

  • 12. Buchanan JW. Congenital heart disease: prevalence of cardiovascular disorders. In: Fox PR, Sisson D, Moise NS, eds. Textbook of canine and feline cardiology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1999; 458463.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Hunt GB, Church DB, Malik R, et al. A retrospective analysis of congenital cardiac abnormalities (1977–1989). Aust Vet Pract 1990; 20: 7075.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Mulvihill JJ, Priester WA. Congenital heart disease in dogs: epidemiologic similarities to man. Teratology 1973; 7: 7377.

  • 15. Buchanan JW. Causes and prevalence of cardiovascular disorders. In: Kirk RW, Bonagura JD, eds. Current veterinary therapy XI. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1992; 647.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Bonagura JD, Herring DS. Congenital heart disease: ventricular septal defect. In: Fox PR, Sisson D, Moïse NS, eds. Textbook of canine and feline cardiology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1999; 499505.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Patterson DF. Congenital defects of the cardiovascular system of dogs. Studies in comparative cardiology. Adv Vet Sci Comp Med 1976; 20: 137.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Tidholm A. Retrospective study of congenital heart defects in 151 dogs. J Small Anim Pract 1997; 38: 9498.

  • 19. Oliveira P, Domenech O, Silva J, et al. Retrospective review of congenital heart disease in 976 dogs. J Vet Intern Med 2011; 25: 477483.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. Liu SK. Pathology of feline heart disease. Vet Clin North Am 1977; 7: 323339.

  • 21. Riesen SC, Kovacevic A, Lombard CW, et al. Prevalence of heart disease in symptomatic cats: an overview from 1998 to 2005. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 2007; 149: 6571.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22. Chetboul V, Charles V, Nicolle A, et al. Retrospective study of 156 atrial septal defects in dogs and cats (2001–2005). J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med 2006; 53: 179184.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23. Chetboul V, Concordet D, Pouchelon JL, et al. Effects of inter- and intra-observer variability on echocardiographic measurements in cats. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med 2003; 50: 326331.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. Chetboul V, Athanassiadis N, Concordet D, et al. Observer dependent variability of quantitative clinical endpoints: the example of canine echocardiography. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2004; 27: 4956.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25. Hansson K, Häggström J, Kvart C, et al. Left atrial to aortic root indices using two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography in Cavaliers King Charles Spaniel with and without left atrial enlargement. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2002; 43: 568575.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26. Boon JA. Congenital shunts and AV valve dysplasia. In: Boon JA, ed. Manual of veterinary echocardiography. 2nd ed. Baltimore: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011; 437475.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27. Hornberger LK, Sahn JS, Krabill KA, et al. Elucidation of the natural history of ventricular septal defects by serial Doppler color flow mapping studies. J Am Coll Cardiol 1989; 13: 11111118.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28. Moïse NS. Doppler echocardiography. J Vet Intern Med 1989; 3: 201203.

  • 29. Otto CM. Echocardiographic evaluation of the adult with unoperated congenital heart disease. In: The practice of clinical echocardiography. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 2002; 884887.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30. Boon JA. Acquired valvular disease. In: Boon JA, ed. Manual of veterinary echocardiography. 2nd ed: Baltimore: Wiley-Black-well, 2011; 267335.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31. Serres F, Chetboul V, Tissier R, et al. Quantification of pulmonary to systemic flow ratio by a Doppler echocardiographic method in the normal dog: repeatability, reproducibility, and reference ranges. J Vet Cardiol 2009; 11: 2329.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32. Bussadori C, Carminati M, Domenech O. Transcatheter closure of a perimembranous ventricular septal defect in a dog. J Vet Intern Med 2007; 21: 13961400.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33. Jacobs JP, Burke RP, Quintessenza JA, et al. Congenital heart surgery nomenclature and database project: ventricular septal defect. Ann Thorac Surg 2000; 69(suppl 4):S25S35.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34. Liu SP, Li L, Yao KC, et al. Investigation of membranous ventricular septal defect complicated with tricuspid regurgitation in ventricular septal defect occlusion. Exp Ther Med 2013; 5: 865869.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35. Spicer DE, Anderson RH, Backer CL. Clarifying the surgical morphology of inlet ventricular septal defects. Ann Thorac Surg 2013; 95: 236241.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36. Shimizu M, Tanaka R, Hoshi K, et al. Surgical correction of ventricular septal defect with aortic regurgitation in a dog. Aust Vet J 2006; 84: 117121.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37. Soto B, Ceballos R, Kirklin JW. Ventricular septal defects: a surgical viewpoint. J Am Coll Cardiol 1989; 14: 12911297.

  • 38. Le Boedec K, Arnaud C, Chetboul V, et al. Relationship between paradoxical breathing and pleural diseases in dyspneic dogs and cats: 389 cases (2001–2009). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2012; 240: 10951099.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39. Rausch WP, Keene BW. Spontaneous resolution of an isolated ventricular septal defect in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003; 223: 219220.

  • 40. Shimizu M, Tanaka R, Hirao H, et al. Percutaneous transcatheter coil embolization of a ventricular septal defect in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005; 226: 6972.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41. Sisson DD, Luethy M, Thomas WP. Ventricular septal defect accompanied by aortic regurgitation in five dogs. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1991; 27: 441447.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42. Peddle GD, Boger L, Van Winkle TJ, et al. Gerbode type defect and third degree atrioventricular block in association with bacterial endocarditis in a dog. J Vet Cardiol 2008; 10: 133139.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43. Quintavalla C, Mavropoulou A, Buratti E. Aortic endocarditis associated with a perforated septal membranous aneurysm in a Boxer dog. J Small Anim Pract 2007; 48: 330334.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44. Monnet E, Orton EC, Gaynor J, et al. Diagnosis and surgical repair of partial atrioventricular septal defects in two dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997; 211: 569572.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45. Fujii Y, Fukuda T, Machida N, et al. Transcatheter closure of congenital ventricular septal defects in 3 dogs with a detachable coil. J Vet Intern Med 2004; 18: 911914.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46. Margiocco ML, Bulmer BJ, Sisson DD. Percutaneous occlusion of a muscular ventricular septal defect with an Amplatzer Muscular VSD occluder. J Vet Cardiol 2008; 10: 6166.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47. Thomas WP. Echocardiographic diagnosis of congenital membranous ventricular septal aneurysm in the dog and cat. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2005; 41: 215220.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48. Tou SP, Keene BW, Barker PCA. Pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect with aortopulmonary collaterals in an adult dog. J Vet Cardiol 2011; 13: 271275.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49. Piantedosi D, Cortese L, Meomartino L, et al. Situs invertus to-talis associated with subaortic stenosis, restrictive ventricular septal defect, and tricuspid dysplasia in an adult dog. Can Vet J 2011; 52: 12371242.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50. Brown WA. Ventricular septal defects in the English Springer Spaniel. In: Bonagura JD, Abbott JA, Abrams KL, eds. Kirk's current veterinary therapy XII: small animal practice. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1995; 827830.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 51. Matic SE. Congenital heart disease in the dog. J Small Anim Pract 1988; 29: 743759.

  • 52. Patterson DF, Pexieder T, Schnarr WR, et al. A single major-gene defect underlying cardiac conotruncal malformations interferes with myocardial growth during embryonic development: studies in the CTD line of Keeshond dogs. Am J Hum Genet 1993; 52: 388397.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 53. Guihaire J, Haddad F, Mercier O, et al. The right heart in congenital heart disease, mechanisms and recent advances. J Clin Exp Cardiolog 2012; 8: 111.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 54. Kazmi U, Sadiq M, Hyder SN. Pattern of ventricular septal defect and associated complications. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2009; 19: 342345.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 55. Chaudhry TA, Younas M, Baig A. Ventricular septal defect and associated complications. J Pak Med Assoc 2011; 61: 10011004.

  • 56. Tweddell JS, Pelech AN, Frommelt PC. Ventricular septal defect and aortic valve regurgitation: pathophysiology and indications for surgery. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg Pediatr Card Surg Annu 2006; 9: 147152.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 57. Kardon RE, Cao QL, Masani N, et al. New insights and observations in three-dimensional echocardiographic visualization of ventricular septal defects: experimental and clinical studies. Circulation 1998; 98: 13071314.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 58. Bonagura JD, Lehmkuhl LB. Congenital heart disease. In: Fox PR, Sisson D, Moise NS, eds. Textbook of canine and feline cardiology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1999; 471535.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 59. Eyster GE. Atrial septal defect and ventricular septal defect. Semin Vet Med Surg (Small Anim) 1994; 9: 227233.

  • 60. Keane JF, Plauth WH, Nadas AS. Ventricular septal defect with aortic regurgitation. Circulation 1977; 56(suppl 1):I72I77.

  • 61. Lun K, Li H, Leung MP, et al. Analysis of indications for surgical closure of subarterial ventricular septal defect without associated aortic cusp prolapse and aortic regurgitation. Am J Cardiol 2001; 87: 12661270.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 62. Corone P, Doyon F, Gaudeau S, et al. Natural history of ventricular septal defect. A study involving 790 cases. Circulation 1977; 55: 908915.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 63. Gersony WM, Hayes CJ, Driscoll DJ. Bacterial endocarditis in patients with aortic stenosis, pulmonary stenosis, or ventricular septal defect. Circulation 1993; 87: 121126.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Signalment, clinical features, echocardiographic findings, and outcome of dogs and cats with ventricular septal defects: 109 cases (1992–2013)

Eric BomassiCentre Hospitalier Vétérinaire des cordeliers, 29 Avenue du maréchal joffre, 77100 Meaux, France.

Search for other papers by Eric Bomassi in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM
,
Charlotte MisbachUnité de cardiologie d'Alfort, Université Paris-Est, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 94704 Maisons-Alfort cedex, France.

Search for other papers by Charlotte Misbach in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, PhD
,
Renaud TissierUnité de pharmacie-toxicologie, Université Paris-Est, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 94704 Maisons-Alfort cedex, France.
INSERM U955, Equipe 03, 51 Avenue du maréchal de lattre de tassigny, 94010 Créteil cedex, France.

Search for other papers by Renaud Tissier in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, PhD
,
Vassiliki GouniUnité de cardiologie d'Alfort, Université Paris-Est, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 94704 Maisons-Alfort cedex, France.

Search for other papers by Vassiliki Gouni in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, PhD
,
Emilie Trehiou-SechiUnité de cardiologie d'Alfort, Université Paris-Est, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 94704 Maisons-Alfort cedex, France.

Search for other papers by Emilie Trehiou-Sechi in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM
,
Amandine M. PetitUnité de cardiologie d'Alfort, Université Paris-Est, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 94704 Maisons-Alfort cedex, France.

Search for other papers by Amandine M. Petit in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM
,
Aude DesmyterUnité de cardiologie d'Alfort, Université Paris-Est, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 94704 Maisons-Alfort cedex, France.

Search for other papers by Aude Desmyter in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM
,
Cécile DamoiseauxUnité de cardiologie d'Alfort, Université Paris-Est, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 94704 Maisons-Alfort cedex, France.

Search for other papers by Cécile Damoiseaux in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM
,
Jean-Louis PouchelonUnité de cardiologie d'Alfort, Université Paris-Est, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 94704 Maisons-Alfort cedex, France.
INSERM U955, Equipe 03, 51 Avenue du maréchal de lattre de tassigny, 94010 Créteil cedex, France.

Search for other papers by Jean-Louis Pouchelon in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, PhD
, and
Valérie ChetboulUnité de cardiologie d'Alfort, Université Paris-Est, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 94704 Maisons-Alfort cedex, France.
INSERM U955, Equipe 03, 51 Avenue du maréchal de lattre de tassigny, 94010 Créteil cedex, France.

Search for other papers by Valérie Chetboul in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, PhD

Abstract

Objective—To determine the signalment, clinical features, echocardiographic findings, and outcome of dogs and cats with ventricular septal defects (VSDs).

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—56 dogs and 53 cats with VSDs.

Procedures—Medical records of dogs and cats with VSDs diagnosed by means of conventional and Doppler echocardiography were reviewed. Signalment, clinical status, echocardiographic findings, and outcome data were recorded. Variables of interest were analyzed for the study population and subgroups according to species and clinical status.

Results—VSDs were isolated (ie, solitary defects) in 53 of 109 (48.6%) patients. Most (82/109 [75.2%]) VSDs were membranous or perimembranous. Terriers and French Bulldogs were commonly represented canine breeds. Most isolated VSDs were subclinical (43/53 [81%]) and had a pulmonary-to-systemic flow ratio < 1. 5 (24/32 [75%]). The VSD diameter and VSD-to-aortic diameter ratio were significantly correlated with pulmonary-to-systemic flow ratio in dogs (r = 0.529 and r = 0.689, respectively) and in cats (r = 0.713 and r = 0.829, respectively). One dog underwent open surgical repair for an isolated VSD and was excluded from survival analysis. Of the remaining animals with isolated VSDs for which data were available (37/52 [71%]), no subclinically affected animals developed signs after initial diagnosis, and median age at death from all causes was 12 years.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Most dogs and cats with isolated VSDs had a long survival time; few had clinical signs at diagnosis, and none with follow-up developed clinical signs after diagnosis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015;247:166–175)

Abstract

Objective—To determine the signalment, clinical features, echocardiographic findings, and outcome of dogs and cats with ventricular septal defects (VSDs).

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—56 dogs and 53 cats with VSDs.

Procedures—Medical records of dogs and cats with VSDs diagnosed by means of conventional and Doppler echocardiography were reviewed. Signalment, clinical status, echocardiographic findings, and outcome data were recorded. Variables of interest were analyzed for the study population and subgroups according to species and clinical status.

Results—VSDs were isolated (ie, solitary defects) in 53 of 109 (48.6%) patients. Most (82/109 [75.2%]) VSDs were membranous or perimembranous. Terriers and French Bulldogs were commonly represented canine breeds. Most isolated VSDs were subclinical (43/53 [81%]) and had a pulmonary-to-systemic flow ratio < 1. 5 (24/32 [75%]). The VSD diameter and VSD-to-aortic diameter ratio were significantly correlated with pulmonary-to-systemic flow ratio in dogs (r = 0.529 and r = 0.689, respectively) and in cats (r = 0.713 and r = 0.829, respectively). One dog underwent open surgical repair for an isolated VSD and was excluded from survival analysis. Of the remaining animals with isolated VSDs for which data were available (37/52 [71%]), no subclinically affected animals developed signs after initial diagnosis, and median age at death from all causes was 12 years.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Most dogs and cats with isolated VSDs had a long survival time; few had clinical signs at diagnosis, and none with follow-up developed clinical signs after diagnosis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015;247:166–175)

Contributor Notes

This study was not supported by any grant or other funding.

Address correspondence to Dr. Chetboul (vchetboul@vet-alfort.fr).