• 1. Newell SM, Selcer BA, Mahaffey MB, et al. Gall bladder mucocele causing biliary obstruction in two dogs: ultrasonographic, scintigraphic, and pathological findings. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1995; 31: 467472.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Besso JG, Wrigley RH, Gliato JM, et al. Ultrasonographic appearance and clinical findings in 14 dogs with gallbladder mucocele. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2000; 41: 261271.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Aguirre A. Diseases of the gallbladder and extrahepatic biliary system. In: Ettinger SJ, Feldman EC, eds. Textbook of veterinary internal medicine. 7th ed. St Louis: Saunders-Elsevier, 2010; 16891695.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Pike FS, Berg J, King NW, et al. Gallbladder mucocele in dogs: 30 cases (2000–2002). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004; 224: 16151622.

  • 5. Ludwig LL, McLaughlin MA, Graves TK, et al. Surgical treatment of bile peritonitis in 24 dogs and 2 cats: a retrospective study (1987–1994). Vet Surg 1997; 26: 9098.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Worley DR, Hottinger HA, Lawrence HJ. Surgical management of gallbladder mucoceles in dogs: 22 cases (1999–2003). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004; 225: 14181422.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Aguirre AL, Center SA, Randolf JF, et al. Gallbladder disease in Shetland Sheepdogs: 38 cases (1995–2005). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2007; 231: 7988.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Crews LJ, Feeney DA, Jessen CR, et al. Clinical, ultrasonographic, and laboratory findings associated with gallbladder disease and rupture in dogs: 45 cases (1997–2007). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2009; 234: 359366.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Malek S, Sinclair E, Hosgood G, et al. Clinical findings and prognostic factors for dogs undergoing cholecystectomy for gall bladder mucocele. Vet Surg 2013; 42: 418426.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Mayhew PD, Weisse C. Liver and biliary system. In: Tobias KM, Johnston SA, eds. Veterinary surgery: small animal. St Louis: Saunders-Elsevier, 2012; 16141615.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Center SA. Diseases of the gallbladder and biliary tree. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2009; 39: 543598.

  • 12. Mealey KL, Minch JD, White SN, et al. An insertion mutation in ABCB4 is associated with gallbladder mucocele formation in dogs. Comp Hepatol 2010; 9: 6.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Anicteric gallbladder rupture in dogs: 5 cases (2007–2013)

Sarah C. GuessDepartment of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506.

Search for other papers by Sarah C. Guess in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM
,
Kenneth R. HarkinDepartment of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506.

Search for other papers by Kenneth R. Harkin in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM
, and
David S. BillerDepartment of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506.

Search for other papers by David S. Biller in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM

Abstract

Objective—To describe clinical, laboratory, and surgical findings in dogs with confirmed gallbladder rupture and in which serum total bilirubin concentration was within reference limits.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—5 dogs.

Procedures—Medical records were searched to identify dogs with gallbladder rupture that underwent treatment at the Kansas State University Veterinary Health Center from November 2007 through November 2013. Dogs were included if they had undergone abdominal ultrasonography, serum total bilirubin concentration was ≤ 0.4 mg/dL, and abdominal exploratory surgery confirmed the presence of gallbladder upture.

Results—An exploratory celotomy was performed in all dogs because of ultrasonographic findings of mild to marked abdominal effusion and either an unidentifiable gallbladder (n = 1 dog) or a distended gallbladder with a suspected gallbladder mucocele (4 dogs). Serum total bilirubin concentration was within reference limits (median, 0.2 mg/dL; range, 0.1 to 0.4 mg/dL; reference range, 0.1 to 0.4 mg/dL) in all dogs before surgery. In 1 dog, bile acids concentrations in serum and in peritoneal fluid were compared and the results (48 μmol/L and 1,070 μmol/L, respectively) were supportive of the diagnosis of gallbladder rupture.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that even when serum total bilirubin concentration is within reference limits, gallbladder rupture should be considered in dogs with acute signs of abdominal pain when a mucocele is suspected on abdominal imaging and free abdominal fluid is present. Results suggested that a comparison of serum to peritoneal fluid bile acids concentrations may provide additional support for a diagnosis of gallbladder rupture.

Abstract

Objective—To describe clinical, laboratory, and surgical findings in dogs with confirmed gallbladder rupture and in which serum total bilirubin concentration was within reference limits.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—5 dogs.

Procedures—Medical records were searched to identify dogs with gallbladder rupture that underwent treatment at the Kansas State University Veterinary Health Center from November 2007 through November 2013. Dogs were included if they had undergone abdominal ultrasonography, serum total bilirubin concentration was ≤ 0.4 mg/dL, and abdominal exploratory surgery confirmed the presence of gallbladder upture.

Results—An exploratory celotomy was performed in all dogs because of ultrasonographic findings of mild to marked abdominal effusion and either an unidentifiable gallbladder (n = 1 dog) or a distended gallbladder with a suspected gallbladder mucocele (4 dogs). Serum total bilirubin concentration was within reference limits (median, 0.2 mg/dL; range, 0.1 to 0.4 mg/dL; reference range, 0.1 to 0.4 mg/dL) in all dogs before surgery. In 1 dog, bile acids concentrations in serum and in peritoneal fluid were compared and the results (48 μmol/L and 1,070 μmol/L, respectively) were supportive of the diagnosis of gallbladder rupture.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that even when serum total bilirubin concentration is within reference limits, gallbladder rupture should be considered in dogs with acute signs of abdominal pain when a mucocele is suspected on abdominal imaging and free abdominal fluid is present. Results suggested that a comparison of serum to peritoneal fluid bile acids concentrations may provide additional support for a diagnosis of gallbladder rupture.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Guess’ present address is Veterinary Health Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506.

The authors declare that there was no funding or conflicts of interest.

Address correspondence to Dr. Guess (scrilly@vet.k-state.edu).