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Cervical intervertebral disk herniation in chondrodystrophoid and nonchondrodystrophoid small-breed dogs: 187 cases (1993–2013)

Takaharu Hakozaki DVM1, Munetaka Iwata DVM, PhD2, Nobuo Kanno DVM, PhD3, Yasuji Harada DVM, PhD4, Takuya Yogo DVM, PhD5, Masahiro Tagawa DVM, PhD6, and Yasushi Hara DVM, PhD7
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  • 1 Laboratory of Veterinary Surgery, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, 1-7-1 Kyounan, Musashino, Tokyo 180-8602, Japan.
  • | 2 Laboratory of Veterinary Surgery, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, 1-7-1 Kyounan, Musashino, Tokyo 180-8602, Japan.
  • | 3 Laboratory of Veterinary Surgery, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, 1-7-1 Kyounan, Musashino, Tokyo 180-8602, Japan.
  • | 4 Laboratory of Veterinary Surgery, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, 1-7-1 Kyounan, Musashino, Tokyo 180-8602, Japan.
  • | 5 Laboratory of Veterinary Surgery, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, 1-7-1 Kyounan, Musashino, Tokyo 180-8602, Japan.
  • | 6 Laboratory of Veterinary Surgery, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, 1-7-1 Kyounan, Musashino, Tokyo 180-8602, Japan.
  • | 7 Laboratory of Veterinary Surgery, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, 1-7-1 Kyounan, Musashino, Tokyo 180-8602, Japan.

Abstract

Objective—To identify characteristics of chondrodystrophoid and nonchondrodystrophoid small-breed dogs with cervical intervertebral disk herniation (IVDH).

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—187 small-breed (≤ 15 kg [33 lb]) dogs that underwent surgery because of cervical IVDH.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for information on breed, sex, age, weight, location of affected intervertebral disks, duration and severity of neurologic signs, and recovery time.

Results—55 of the 187 (29.4%) dogs were Beagles. The most frequently affected intervertebral disk was C2–3 (81/253 [32.0%]), and this was the more frequently affected intervertebral disk in dogs of several chondrodystrophoid breeds, including Beagles (29/66 [43.9%]), Dachshunds (13/37 [35.1%]), Shih Tzus (16/41 [39.0%]), and Pekingese (3/10 [30.0%]). However, caudal disks (C5–6 or C6–7) were more frequently affected in Yorkshire Terriers (13/24 [54.2%]) and Chihuahuas (9/13 [69%]). Shih Tzus and Yorkshire Terriers were significantly older at the time of surgery (mean ± SD age, 9.6 ± 2.3 years and 9.5 ± 2.5 years, respectively) than were Pomeranians (6.2 ± 2.3 years), and Yorkshire Terriers had a significantly higher number of affected disks (2.0 ± 0.9) than did Dachshunds (1.1 ± 0.3). Mean recovery time was significantly longer in Yorkshire Terriers (36.7 ± 13.0 days) than in Beagles (16.5 ± 17.1 days), Shih Tzus (17.8 ± 14.5 days), or Chihuahuas (12.2 ± 7. 2 days).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that there may be breed-specific differences in the characteristics of cervical IVDH in small-breed dogs.

Abstract

Objective—To identify characteristics of chondrodystrophoid and nonchondrodystrophoid small-breed dogs with cervical intervertebral disk herniation (IVDH).

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—187 small-breed (≤ 15 kg [33 lb]) dogs that underwent surgery because of cervical IVDH.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for information on breed, sex, age, weight, location of affected intervertebral disks, duration and severity of neurologic signs, and recovery time.

Results—55 of the 187 (29.4%) dogs were Beagles. The most frequently affected intervertebral disk was C2–3 (81/253 [32.0%]), and this was the more frequently affected intervertebral disk in dogs of several chondrodystrophoid breeds, including Beagles (29/66 [43.9%]), Dachshunds (13/37 [35.1%]), Shih Tzus (16/41 [39.0%]), and Pekingese (3/10 [30.0%]). However, caudal disks (C5–6 or C6–7) were more frequently affected in Yorkshire Terriers (13/24 [54.2%]) and Chihuahuas (9/13 [69%]). Shih Tzus and Yorkshire Terriers were significantly older at the time of surgery (mean ± SD age, 9.6 ± 2.3 years and 9.5 ± 2.5 years, respectively) than were Pomeranians (6.2 ± 2.3 years), and Yorkshire Terriers had a significantly higher number of affected disks (2.0 ± 0.9) than did Dachshunds (1.1 ± 0.3). Mean recovery time was significantly longer in Yorkshire Terriers (36.7 ± 13.0 days) than in Beagles (16.5 ± 17.1 days), Shih Tzus (17.8 ± 14.5 days), or Chihuahuas (12.2 ± 7. 2 days).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that there may be breed-specific differences in the characteristics of cervical IVDH in small-breed dogs.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Hakozaki (v06068@gmail.com).