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Incidence rates and risk factors for owner-reported adverse events following vaccination of dogs that did or did not receive a Leptospira vaccine

Peng Ju Yao DVM, MPVM1, Nicole Stephenson DVM, MPVM2, Janet E. Foley DVM, PhD3, Chuck R. Toussieng4, Thomas B. Farver PhD5, Jane E. Sykes BVSc, PhD6, and Katryna A. Fleer DVM, MPVM7
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  • 1 Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 2 Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 3 Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 4 VIP PetCare, 5813 Skylane Blvd, Windsor, CA 95492.
  • | 5 Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 6 Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 7 VIP PetCare, 5813 Skylane Blvd, Windsor, CA 95492.

Abstract

Objective—To determine incidence rates (IRs) and potential risk factors for owner-reported adverse events (AEs) following vaccination of dogs that did or did not receive a Leptospira vaccine.

Design—Observational, retrospective cohort study.

Animals—130,557 dogs.

Procedures—Electronic records of mobile veterinary clinics from June 2012 to March 2013 were searched to identify dogs that received ≥ 1 vaccine in a given visit. Signalment data, vaccinations received, medications administered, and owner-reported clinical signs consistent with AEs that developed ≤ 5 days after vaccination were recorded. Associations between potential risk factors and owner-reported AEs were evaluated by logistic regression analysis.

Results—The IR/10,000 dogs for owner-reported postvaccination AEs was 26.3 (95% CI, 23.6 to 29.2), whereas that for dogs that received a Leptospira vaccine alone or with other vaccines was 53.0 (95% CI, 42.8 to 64.9). Significant factors for increasing or decreasing risk of AEs were as follows: receiving a Leptospira vaccine (adjusted OR, 2.13), age at vaccination 1 to < 7 or ≥ 7 years (vs a referent of < 6 months; adjusted OR, 0.54 and 0.44, respectively), and weight 13.6 to < 22.7 kg (30 to < 50 lb) and 22.7 to < 45.5 kg (50 to 100 lb [vs a referent of < 4.5 kg {10 lb}]; adjusted OR, 0.48 and 0.55, respectively). Hypersensitivity reactions were rare (IR, 6.5/10,000 dogs), and IRs for these events did not differ significantly between dogs vaccinated with or without a Leptospira component.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The overall IR for owner-reported postvaccination AEs was low. Results suggested vaccination against Leptospira (an organism that can cause fatal disease) is safe in the majority of cases, slightly increasing the risk of owner-reported AEs but not associated with a significant increase in hypersensitivity reactions, compared with other vaccinations administered.

Abstract

Objective—To determine incidence rates (IRs) and potential risk factors for owner-reported adverse events (AEs) following vaccination of dogs that did or did not receive a Leptospira vaccine.

Design—Observational, retrospective cohort study.

Animals—130,557 dogs.

Procedures—Electronic records of mobile veterinary clinics from June 2012 to March 2013 were searched to identify dogs that received ≥ 1 vaccine in a given visit. Signalment data, vaccinations received, medications administered, and owner-reported clinical signs consistent with AEs that developed ≤ 5 days after vaccination were recorded. Associations between potential risk factors and owner-reported AEs were evaluated by logistic regression analysis.

Results—The IR/10,000 dogs for owner-reported postvaccination AEs was 26.3 (95% CI, 23.6 to 29.2), whereas that for dogs that received a Leptospira vaccine alone or with other vaccines was 53.0 (95% CI, 42.8 to 64.9). Significant factors for increasing or decreasing risk of AEs were as follows: receiving a Leptospira vaccine (adjusted OR, 2.13), age at vaccination 1 to < 7 or ≥ 7 years (vs a referent of < 6 months; adjusted OR, 0.54 and 0.44, respectively), and weight 13.6 to < 22.7 kg (30 to < 50 lb) and 22.7 to < 45.5 kg (50 to 100 lb [vs a referent of < 4.5 kg {10 lb}]; adjusted OR, 0.48 and 0.55, respectively). Hypersensitivity reactions were rare (IR, 6.5/10,000 dogs), and IRs for these events did not differ significantly between dogs vaccinated with or without a Leptospira component.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The overall IR for owner-reported postvaccination AEs was low. Results suggested vaccination against Leptospira (an organism that can cause fatal disease) is safe in the majority of cases, slightly increasing the risk of owner-reported AEs but not associated with a significant increase in hypersensitivity reactions, compared with other vaccinations administered.

Contributor Notes

Supported by the Graduate Student Support Program of the School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis and the University of California-Davis Center for Vector-borne Disease.

Drs. Toussieng and Fleer are employed by VIP PetCare. Drs. Foley and Sykes received no funding from VIP PetCare; they received a grant from Zoetis to develop diagnostic capacity for leptospirosis for companion animals.

Address correspondence to Dr. Foley (jefoley@ucdavis.edu).