• 1. Adams OR. An improved method of diagnosis and castration of cryptorchid horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1964; 145:439446.

  • 2. Schumacher J. Testis. In: Auer JA, Stick JA, eds. Equine surgery. 4th ed. St Louis: Elsevier; 2012;804840.

  • 3. Stickle RL, Fessler JF. Retrospective study of 350 cases of equine cryptorchidism. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1978; 172:343346.

  • 4. Cox JE, Edwards GB, Neal PA. An analysis of 500 cases of equine cryptorchidism. Equine Vet J 1979; 11:113116.

  • 5. Jann HW, Rains JR. Diagnostic ultrasonography for evaluation of cryptorchidism in horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1990; 196:297300.

  • 6. Schambourg MA, Farley JA, Marcoux M, et al. Use of transabdominal ultrasonography to determine the location of cryptorchid testes in the horse. Equine Vet J 2006; 38:242245.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Wilson DG, Reinertson EL. A modified parainguinal approach for cryptorchidectomy in horses: an evaluation in 107 horses. Vet Surg 1987; 16:14.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Wright J. Laparo-orchidectomy in the horse with abdominal cryptorchidism. Vet Rec 1960; 72:5760.

  • 9. Cox JE, Neal PA, Edwards GB. Suprapubic paramedian laparotomy for equine abdominal cryptorchidism. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1978; 173:680682.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Swift PN. Castration of a stallion with bilateral abdominal cryptorchidism by flank laparotomy. Aust Vet J 1972; 48:472473.

  • 11. Barber S. Castration of horses with primary closure and scrotal ablation. Vet Surg 1985; 14:26.

  • 12. Palmer SE, Passmore JL. Midline scrotal ablation technique for unilateral cryptorchid castration in horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1987; 190:283285.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Hendrickson DA, Wilson DG. Laparoscopic cryptorchid castration in standing horses. Vet Surg 1997; 26:335339.

  • 14. Davis EW. Laparoscopic cryptorchidectomy in standing horses. Vet Surg 1997; 26:326331.

  • 15. Ragle CA, Southwood LL, Howlett MR. Ventral abdominal approach for laparoscopic cryptorchidectomy in horses. Vet Surg 1998; 27:138142.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Marshall JF, Moorman VJ, Moll HD. Comparison of the diagnosis and management of unilaterally castrated and cryptorchid horses at a referral hospital: 60 cases (2002–2006). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2007; 231:931934.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Arighi M, Bosu W. Comparison of hormonal methods for diagnosis of cryptorchidism in horses. J Equine Vet Sci 1989; 9:2025.

  • 18. Fischer AT, Vachon AM. Laparoscopic intra-abdominal ligation and removal of cryptorchid testes in horses. Equine Vet J 1998; 30:105108.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Schumacher J, Schumacher J, Spano J, et al. Effects of castration on peritoneal fluid in the horse. J Vet Intern Med 1988; 2:2225.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. Durward-Akhurst SA, Mair TS, Boston R, et al. A comparison of two antimicrobial regimens on the prevalence of incisional infections after colic surgery. Vet Rec 2013; 172:287290.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Cryptorchidectomy in equids: 604 cases (1977–2010)

Richard HartmanDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.

Search for other papers by Richard Hartman in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM
,
Jan F. HawkinsDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.

Search for other papers by Jan F. Hawkins in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM
,
Stephen B. AdamsDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.

Search for other papers by Stephen B. Adams in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM
,
George E. MooreDepartment of Comparative Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.

Search for other papers by George E. Moore in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, PhD
, and
John F. FesslerDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.

Search for other papers by John F. Fessler in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the management of equids undergoing cryptorchidectomy at a referral hospital.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—604 client-owned equids.

Procedures—Medical records of all equids undergoing surgical treatment of cryptorchidism from 1977 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Analyses of breed, location of retained testes, accuracy of palpation per rectum for determining the location of retained testes, surgical technique, and postoperative complications were performed.

Results—The most frequently affected breed was the Quarter Horse (282/604 [47%]), which was significantly overrepresented. Of the 604 equids, 90 (15%) had undergone previous surgical attempts at castration. Preoperative palpation per rectum was performed in 395/604 (65.4%) patients, and was accurate in predicting the location of the retained testes in 354/395 (89.6%). Surgeons were significantly more likely to be incorrect in determining the location of the retained testis by means of palpation per rectum in patients that had undergone a prior attempt at castration. For equids with abdominal cryptorchidism (360/604 [59.6%]), the most common surgical technique was noninvasive cryptorchidectomy (298/360 [82.8%]). In unilateral cryptorchids (521/604 [86.3%]), the 2 most common sites were left abdominal (184/521 [35.3%]) and right inguinal (148/521 [28.4%]). For bilateral retention (80/604 [13.2%]), abdominal cryptorchidism was most common (48/80 [60%]). Fever was present in 138/324 (43%) equids on the first day after surgery. Postoperative fever was not significantly associated with any variables evaluated. Including postoperative (≤ 24 hours) fever, 150 of 604 (25%) patients developed postoperative complications. Excluding postoperative fever, 18 of 604 (3%) patients developed major postoperative complications; complications in 10 of 604 patients were deemed surgically related, and 3 of 604 patients died.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that cryptorchidectomy in equids performed with a variety of surgical approaches was associated with minimal postoperative complications. A history of previous attempts at castration decreased the ability to accurately predict the location of the retained testis.

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the management of equids undergoing cryptorchidectomy at a referral hospital.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—604 client-owned equids.

Procedures—Medical records of all equids undergoing surgical treatment of cryptorchidism from 1977 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Analyses of breed, location of retained testes, accuracy of palpation per rectum for determining the location of retained testes, surgical technique, and postoperative complications were performed.

Results—The most frequently affected breed was the Quarter Horse (282/604 [47%]), which was significantly overrepresented. Of the 604 equids, 90 (15%) had undergone previous surgical attempts at castration. Preoperative palpation per rectum was performed in 395/604 (65.4%) patients, and was accurate in predicting the location of the retained testes in 354/395 (89.6%). Surgeons were significantly more likely to be incorrect in determining the location of the retained testis by means of palpation per rectum in patients that had undergone a prior attempt at castration. For equids with abdominal cryptorchidism (360/604 [59.6%]), the most common surgical technique was noninvasive cryptorchidectomy (298/360 [82.8%]). In unilateral cryptorchids (521/604 [86.3%]), the 2 most common sites were left abdominal (184/521 [35.3%]) and right inguinal (148/521 [28.4%]). For bilateral retention (80/604 [13.2%]), abdominal cryptorchidism was most common (48/80 [60%]). Fever was present in 138/324 (43%) equids on the first day after surgery. Postoperative fever was not significantly associated with any variables evaluated. Including postoperative (≤ 24 hours) fever, 150 of 604 (25%) patients developed postoperative complications. Excluding postoperative fever, 18 of 604 (3%) patients developed major postoperative complications; complications in 10 of 604 patients were deemed surgically related, and 3 of 604 patients died.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that cryptorchidectomy in equids performed with a variety of surgical approaches was associated with minimal postoperative complications. A history of previous attempts at castration decreased the ability to accurately predict the location of the retained testis.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Hartman's present address is Mid Rivers Equine Centre, 404 Stable Ln, Wentzville, MO 63385.

Address correspondence to Dr. Hartman (rhartmandvm@gmail.com).

†Deceased.