• 1. Osborne CA, Lulich JP & Kruger JM, et al. Analysis of 451,891 canine uroliths, feline uroliths, and feline urethral plugs from 1981 to 2007: perspectives from the Minnesota Urolith Center. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2009; 39: 183197.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Lulich JP, Osborne CA & Thumchai R, et al. Epidemiology of canine calcium oxalate uroliths. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1999; 29: 113122.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Wisener LV, Pearl DL & Houston DM, et al. Risk factors for the incidence of calcium oxalate uroliths or magnesium ammonium phosphate uroliths for dogs in Ontario, Canada, from 1998 to 2006. Am J Vet Res 2010; 71: 10451054.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Low WW, Uhl JM & Kass PH, et al. Evaluation of trends in urolith composition and characteristics of dogs with urolithiasis: 25,499 cases (1985–2006). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2010; 236: 193200.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Lekcharoensuk C, Lulich JP & Osborne CA, et al. Patient and environmental factors associated with calcium oxalate urolithiasis in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000; 217: 515519.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Franti CE, Ling GV & Ruby AL, et al. Urolithiasis in dogs V: regional comparisons of breed, age, sex, anatomic location, and mineral type of calculus. Am J Vet Res 1999; 60: 2942.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Houston DM, Moore AEP. Canine and feline urolithiasis: examination of over 50,000 urolith submissions to the Canadian Veterinary Urolith Centre from 1998–2008. Can Vet J 2009; 50: 12631268.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Lulich JP, Osborne CA & Unger LK, et al. Prevalence of calcium oxalate uroliths in Miniature Schnauzers. Am J Vet Res 1991; 52: 15791582.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Lulich JP, Osborne CA & Nagode LA, et al. Evaluation of urine and serum metabolites in Miniature Schnauzers with calcium oxalate uroliths. Am J Vet Res 1991; 52: 15831590.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Stevenson AE, Blackburn JM & Markwell PJ, et al. Nutrient intake and urine composition in calcium oxalate stone-forming dogs: comparison with healthy dogs and impact of dietary modification. Vet Ther 2004; 5: 218231.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Lekcharoensuk C, Osborne CA & Lulich JP, et al. Association between dietary factors in canned food and formation of calcium oxalate uroliths in dogs. Am J Vet Res 2002; 63: 163169.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Lekcharoensuk C, Osborne CA & Lulich JP, et al. Association between dry dietary factors and canine calcium oxalate uroliths. Am J Vet Res 2002; 63: 330337.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Lulich JP, Osborne CA, Sanderson SL. Effects of dietary supplementation with sodium chloride on urinary relative supersaturation with calcium oxalate in healthy dogs. Am J Vet Res 2005; 66: 319324.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Stevenson AE, Hynds WK, Markwell PJ. The relative effects of supplemental dietary calcium and oxalate on urine composition and calcium oxalate relative supersaturation in healthy adult dogs. Res Vet Sci 2003; 75: 3341.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Lulich JP, Osborne CA, Daubs TH. Biologic behavior of calcium oxalate uroliths in Bichon Frise dogs. J Vet Intern Med 2004; 18: 440441.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Lulich JP, Osborne CA & Lekcharoensuk C, et al. Effects of hydro-chlorothiazide and diet in dogs with calcium oxalate urolithiasis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001; 218: 15831586.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. SAS/STAT 9.3 user's guide. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc, 2011.

Advertisement

Associations of diet and breed with recurrence of calcium oxalate cystic calculi in dogs

Heidi S. AllenDepartment of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061.

Search for other papers by Heidi S. Allen in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM
,
William S. SweckerDepartment of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061.

Search for other papers by William S. Swecker in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, PhD
,
Iveta BecvarovaDepartment of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061.

Search for other papers by Iveta Becvarova in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, MS
,
Lisa P. WeethClinical Nutrition Department, Red Bank Veterinary Hospital, 197 Hance Ave, Tinton Falls, NJ 07724.

Search for other papers by Lisa P. Weeth in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM
, and
Stephen R. WerreLaboratory for Study Design and Statistical Analysis, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061.

Search for other papers by Stephen R. Werre in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 PhD

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the long-term risk of recurrence of calcium oxalate (CaOx) cystic calculi in dogs of various breeds fed 1 of 2 therapeutic diets.

Design—Retrospective cohort study.

Animals—135 dogs with a history of CaOx cystic calculi.

Procedures—Medical records for 4 referral hospitals were searched to identify dogs that had had CaOx cystic calculi removed. Owners were contacted and medical records evaluated to obtain information on postoperative diet, recurrence of signs of lower urinary tract disease, and recurrence of cystic calculi. Dogs were grouped on the basis of breed (high-risk breeds, low-risk breeds, and Miniature Schnauzers) and diet fed after removal of cystic calculi (diet A, diet B, and any other diet [diet C], with diets A and B being therapeutic diets formulated to prevent recurrence of CaOx calculi).

Results—Breed group was a significant predictor of calculi recurrence (as determined by abdominal radiography or ultrasonography), with Miniature Schnauzers having 3 times the risk of recurrence as did dogs of other breeds. Dogs in diet group A had a lower prevalence of recurrence than did dogs in diet group C, but this difference was not significant in multivariable analysis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that Miniature Schnauzers had a higher risk of CaOx cystic calculi recurrence than did dogs of other breeds. In addition, findings suggested that diet may play a role in decreasing recurrence, but future prospective studies are needed to validate these observations.

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the long-term risk of recurrence of calcium oxalate (CaOx) cystic calculi in dogs of various breeds fed 1 of 2 therapeutic diets.

Design—Retrospective cohort study.

Animals—135 dogs with a history of CaOx cystic calculi.

Procedures—Medical records for 4 referral hospitals were searched to identify dogs that had had CaOx cystic calculi removed. Owners were contacted and medical records evaluated to obtain information on postoperative diet, recurrence of signs of lower urinary tract disease, and recurrence of cystic calculi. Dogs were grouped on the basis of breed (high-risk breeds, low-risk breeds, and Miniature Schnauzers) and diet fed after removal of cystic calculi (diet A, diet B, and any other diet [diet C], with diets A and B being therapeutic diets formulated to prevent recurrence of CaOx calculi).

Results—Breed group was a significant predictor of calculi recurrence (as determined by abdominal radiography or ultrasonography), with Miniature Schnauzers having 3 times the risk of recurrence as did dogs of other breeds. Dogs in diet group A had a lower prevalence of recurrence than did dogs in diet group C, but this difference was not significant in multivariable analysis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that Miniature Schnauzers had a higher risk of CaOx cystic calculi recurrence than did dogs of other breeds. In addition, findings suggested that diet may play a role in decreasing recurrence, but future prospective studies are needed to validate these observations.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Becvarova's present address is Hill's Pet Nutrition Manufacturing, s.r.o. Rohanske nabrezi 678/23, Karlin, Prague 8, 186 00, Czech Republic.

Address correspondence to Dr. Allen (rundvm@gmail.com).