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Clinical features of progressive vacuolar hepatopathy in Scottish Terriers with and without hepatocellular carcinoma: 114 cases (1980–2013)

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  • 1 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.
  • | 2 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.
  • | 3 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.
  • | 4 Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.
  • | 5 Department of Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996.
  • | 6 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.
  • | 7 Veterinary Internal Medicine Practice of North Virginia, 8614 Centreville Rd, Manassas, VA 20110.
  • | 8 Centreville Animal Hospital, 13663 Lee Hwy, Centreville, VA 20121.
  • | 9 Charleston Veterinary Referral Center, 3484 Shelby Ray Ct, Charleston, SC 29414.
  • | 10 Tranquility Veterinary Clinic, 17 Kennedy Rd, PO Box 71, Tranquility, NJ 07879.
  • | 11 Oldwick Animal Hospital, PO Box 650, 130 Oldwick Rd, Oldwick, NJ 08858.
  • | 12 Village Animal Clinic, 9044 Alternate A1A, North Palm Beach, FL 33403.
  • | 13 Stack Hospital for Pets, 100 Mill St, Limestone Plaza, Fayetteville, NY 13066.
  • | 14 Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.

Abstract

Objective—To characterize signalment, clinical features, clinicopathologic variables, hepatic ultrasonographic characteristics, endocrinologic profiles, treatment response, and age at death of Scottish Terriers with progressive vacuolar hepatopathy (VH) with or without hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—114 Scottish Terriers with progressive VH.

Procedures—Electronic databases from 1980 to 2013 were searched for adult (age > 1 year) Scottish Terriers with histopathologic diagnoses of diffuse glycogen-like VH. Available sections of liver specimens were histologically reevaluated to confirm diffuse VH with or without HCC; 8 dogs with HCC only had neoplastic tissue available. Physical examination, clinicopathologic, treatment, and survival data were obtained.

Results—39 of 114 (34%) dogs with VH had HCC detected at surgery or necropsy or by abdominal ultrasonography. Histologic findings indicated that HCC was seemingly preceded by dysplastic hepatocellular foci. No significant differences were found in clinicopathologic variables or age at death between VH-affected dogs with or without HCC. Fifteen of 26 (58%) dogs with high hepatic copper concentrations had histologic features consistent with copper-associated hepatopathy. Although signs consistent with hyperadrenocorticism were observed in 40% (46/114) of dogs, definitive diagnosis was inconsistently confirmed. Assessment of adrenal sex hormone concentrations before and after ACTH administration identified high progesterone and androstenedione concentrations in 88% (22/25) and 80% (20/25) of tested dogs, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that VH in Scottish Terriers may be linked to adrenal steroidogenesis and a predisposition to HCC. In dogs with VH, frequent serum biochemical analysis and ultrasonographic surveillance for early tumor detection are recommended.

Abstract

Objective—To characterize signalment, clinical features, clinicopathologic variables, hepatic ultrasonographic characteristics, endocrinologic profiles, treatment response, and age at death of Scottish Terriers with progressive vacuolar hepatopathy (VH) with or without hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—114 Scottish Terriers with progressive VH.

Procedures—Electronic databases from 1980 to 2013 were searched for adult (age > 1 year) Scottish Terriers with histopathologic diagnoses of diffuse glycogen-like VH. Available sections of liver specimens were histologically reevaluated to confirm diffuse VH with or without HCC; 8 dogs with HCC only had neoplastic tissue available. Physical examination, clinicopathologic, treatment, and survival data were obtained.

Results—39 of 114 (34%) dogs with VH had HCC detected at surgery or necropsy or by abdominal ultrasonography. Histologic findings indicated that HCC was seemingly preceded by dysplastic hepatocellular foci. No significant differences were found in clinicopathologic variables or age at death between VH-affected dogs with or without HCC. Fifteen of 26 (58%) dogs with high hepatic copper concentrations had histologic features consistent with copper-associated hepatopathy. Although signs consistent with hyperadrenocorticism were observed in 40% (46/114) of dogs, definitive diagnosis was inconsistently confirmed. Assessment of adrenal sex hormone concentrations before and after ACTH administration identified high progesterone and androstenedione concentrations in 88% (22/25) and 80% (20/25) of tested dogs, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that VH in Scottish Terriers may be linked to adrenal steroidogenesis and a predisposition to HCC. In dogs with VH, frequent serum biochemical analysis and ultrasonographic surveillance for early tumor detection are recommended.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Center (sac6@cornell.edu).