• 1. McKeown DB, Cockshutt JR, Partlow GD, et al. Dorsal approach to the caudal pelvic canal and rectum: effect on normal dogs. Vet Surg 1984; 13: 181184.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Tobias KM, Johnston SA. Rectum, anus, and perineum. In: Veterinary surgery: small animal. St Louis: Elsevier, 2012; 15641571.

  • 3. Danova NA, Robles-Emanuelli JC, Bjorling DE. Surgical excision of primary canine rectal tumors by an anal approach in twenty-three dogs. Vet Surg 2006; 35: 337340.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Anson LW, Betts CW, Stone EA. A retrospective evaluation of the rectal pull-through technique. Vet Surg 1988; 17: 141146.

  • 5. Morello E, Martano M, Squassino C, et al. Transanal pull-through rectal amputation for treatment of colorectal carcinoma in 11 dogs. Vet Surg 2008; 37: 420426.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Anderson GI, McKeown DB, Partlow GD, et al. Rectal resection in the dog: a new surgical approach and the evaluation of its effect on fecal continence. Vet Surg 1987; 16: 119125.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Yoon H-Y, Mann FA. Bilateral pubic and ischial osteotomy for surgical management of caudal colonic and rectal masses in six dogs and a cat. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2008; 232: 10161020.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Allen SW, Crowell WA. Ventral approach to the pelvic canal in the female dog. Vet Surg 1991; 20: 118121.

  • 9. Davies JV, Read HM. Sagittal pubic osteotomy in the investigation and treatment of intrapelvic neoplasia in the dog. J Small Anim Pract 1990; 31: 123130.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Holt PE. Evaluation of transanal endoscopic treatment of benign canine rectal neoplasia. J Small Anim Pract 2007; 48: 1725.

  • 11. White RAS, Gorman NT. The clinical diagnosis and management of rectal and pararectal tumors in the dog. J Small Anim Pract 1987; 28: 87107.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Greene JA, Knecht CD & Dunstan R. Pull-through resection of the rectum. Canine Pract 1977; 4 (5): 4346.

  • 13. Selting KA. Intestinal tumors. In: Withrow SJ, Vail DM, Page RL, eds. Small animal clinical oncology. 5th ed. St Louis: Elsevier, 2013; 412420.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Valerius KD, Power BE, McPherron MA, et al. Adenomatous polyps and carcinoma in situ of the canine colon and rectum: 34 cases (1982–1994). J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1997; 33: 156160.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Holt PE, Lucke VM. Rectal neoplasia in the dog: a clinicopathological review of 31 cases. Vet Rec 1985; 116: 400405.

  • 16. Garrett LD, Thamm DH, Chun R, et al. Evaluation of a 6-month chemotherapy protocol with no maintenance therapy for dogs with lymphoma. J Vet Intern Med 2002; 16: 704709.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Guilford WG. Fecal incontinence in dogs and cats. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 1990; 12: 313324.

  • 18. López Albors O, Rojo D, Sarriá R, et al. Morphometry of the canine intestine with reference to the use of double balloon endoscopy. Vet J 2011; 190: 113118.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Swenson O, Bill AH Jr. Resection of the rectum and rectosigmoid with preservation of the sphincter for benign spastic lesions producing megacolon. Surgery 1948; 24: 212220.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. Levitt MA, Hamrick MC, Eradi B, et al. Transanal, full-thickness, Swenson-like approach for Hirschsprung disease. J Pediatr Surg 2013; 48: 22892295.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. Sherman JO, Snyder ME, Weitzman JJ, et al. A 40-year multinational retrospective study of 880 Swenson procedures. J Pediatr Surg 1989; 24: 833838.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22. Grandage J. Functional anatomy of the digestive system. In: Slatter DH, ed. Textbook of small animal surgery. 3rd ed. St Louis: Saunders, 2003.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23. Gorman SC, Freeman LM, Mitchell SL, et al. Extensive small bowel resection in dogs and cats: 20 cases (1998–2004). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2006; 228: 403407.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. Kupanoff PA, Popovitch CA, Goledschmidt MH. Colorectal plasmacytomas: a retrospective study of nine dogs. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2006; 42: 3743.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25. Williams LE, Gliatto JM, Dodge RK, et al. Carcinoma of the apocrine glands of the anal sac in dogs: 113 cases (1985–1995). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003; 223: 825831.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26. Houssami N, Macaskill P, Marinovich M, et al. Meta-analysis of the impact of surgical margins on local recurrence in women with early-stage invasive breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy. Eur J Cancer 2010; 46: 32193232.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27. London CA, Thamm DH. Mast cell tumors. In: Withrow SJ, Vail DM, Page RL, eds. Small animal clinical oncology. 5th ed. St Louis: Elsevier, 2013; 335346.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28. Liptak JM, Forrest LJ. Soft tissue sarcoma. In: Withrow SJ, Vail DM, Page RL, eds. Small animal clinical oncology. 5th ed. St Louis: Elsevier, 2013; 363368.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29. Schaffer E & Schiefer B. Incidence and types of canine rectal carcinomas. J Small Anim Pract 1968; 9: 491496.

  • 30. Prater MR, Flatland B, Newman SJ, et al. Diffuse annular fusiform adenocarcinoma in a dog. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2000; 36: 169173.

  • 31. Church EM, Mehlhaff CJ, Patnaik AK. Colorectal adenocarcinoma in dogs: 78 cases (1973–1984). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1987; 191: 727730.

  • 32. Seiler RJ. Colorectal polyps of the dog: a clinicopathologic study of 17 cases. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1979; 174: 7275.

Advertisement

Complications and outcomes following rectal pull-through surgery in dogs with rectal masses: 74 cases (2000–2013)

View More View Less
  • 1 Alta Vista Animal Hospital, 2616 Bank St, Ottawa, ON K1T 1M9, Canada.
  • | 2 Alta Vista Animal Hospital, 2616 Bank St, Ottawa, ON K1T 1M9, Canada.
  • | 3 Department of Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802.
  • | 4 Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 5 Small Animal Surgery Service, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506.
  • | 6 Flint Animal Cancer Center, Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.
  • | 7 MedVet Medical and Cancer Centers for Pets, 3964 Red Bank Rd, Fairfax, OH 45227.
  • | 8 Veterinary Specialist Services, 104 Eastlake St, Carrara, QLD 4211, Australia.
  • | 9 Clinica Veterinaria Tibaldi, Viale Tibaldi 66, 20136 Milan, Italy.
  • | 10 Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.
  • | 11 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849.
  • | 12 Veterinary Emergency and Specialty Hospital, 141 Greenfield Rd, South Deerfield, MA 01373.
  • | 13 Department of Veterinary Science, School of Veterinary Medicine, Universita’ degli Studi di Torino, 10095 Turin, Italy.

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the incidence of and factors associated with complications following rectal pull-through (RPT) surgery and the outcome for dogs with rectal tumors.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—74 dogs with rectal masses.

Procedures—Information regarding signalment, history, diagnostic testing, type of rectal disease, surgical details, and postoperative complications, treatments, and outcomes was obtained from medical records and follow-up communications. Survival times were calculated. Descriptive statistics were generated. Regression analyses were used to evaluate the effect of various variables on the development of postsurgical complications and survival time.

Results—58 (78.4%) dogs developed postsurgical complications, the most common of which was fecal incontinence with 42 (56.8%) dogs affected, of which 23 (54.8%) developed permanent incontinence. Other complications included diarrhea (n = 32), tenesmus (23), stricture formation (16), rectal bleeding (8), constipation (7), dehiscence (6), and infection (4). The rectal tumor recurred in 10 dogs. The median survival time was 1,150 days for all dogs and 726 days for dogs with malignant tumors. The 2 most common rectal masses were rectal carcinoma and rectal carcinoma in situ, and the dogs with these tumors had median survival times of 696 and 1,006 days, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dogs with rectal diseases that underwent RPT surgery had a high incidence of complications; however, those dogs had good local tumor control and survival times. The risk and impact of postsurgical complications on the quality of life and oncological outcomes should be discussed with owners before RPT surgery is performed in dogs with rectal masses.

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the incidence of and factors associated with complications following rectal pull-through (RPT) surgery and the outcome for dogs with rectal tumors.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—74 dogs with rectal masses.

Procedures—Information regarding signalment, history, diagnostic testing, type of rectal disease, surgical details, and postoperative complications, treatments, and outcomes was obtained from medical records and follow-up communications. Survival times were calculated. Descriptive statistics were generated. Regression analyses were used to evaluate the effect of various variables on the development of postsurgical complications and survival time.

Results—58 (78.4%) dogs developed postsurgical complications, the most common of which was fecal incontinence with 42 (56.8%) dogs affected, of which 23 (54.8%) developed permanent incontinence. Other complications included diarrhea (n = 32), tenesmus (23), stricture formation (16), rectal bleeding (8), constipation (7), dehiscence (6), and infection (4). The rectal tumor recurred in 10 dogs. The median survival time was 1,150 days for all dogs and 726 days for dogs with malignant tumors. The 2 most common rectal masses were rectal carcinoma and rectal carcinoma in situ, and the dogs with these tumors had median survival times of 696 and 1,006 days, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dogs with rectal diseases that underwent RPT surgery had a high incidence of complications; however, those dogs had good local tumor control and survival times. The risk and impact of postsurgical complications on the quality of life and oncological outcomes should be discussed with owners before RPT surgery is performed in dogs with rectal masses.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Liptak (jliptak@uoguelph.ca).