• 1. Cutler KL. An update on the surgical options for the treatment of deep digital sepsis in cattle. Cattle Pract 2000; 8: 371376.

  • 2. Weaver AD. Digital sepsis: etiology and control. Bovine Pract 1988; 84: 23.

  • 3. Weaver AD. Cattle foot problems. 2. Diseases of the horn and corium. Agri-Practice 1988; 9: 3540.

  • 4. Baggott DG, Russell AM. Lameness in cattle. Br Vet J 1981; 137: 113132.

  • 5. Shearer JK, Van Amstel SR, Brodersen BW. Clinical diagnosis of foot and leg lameness in cattle. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 2012; 28: 535556.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Ferguson JG. Treatment and control of claw diseases. Cattle Pract 2004; 12: 285292.

  • 7. Guard C. Surgery of the diseased bovine digit, in Proceedings. Ontario Vet Med Assoc Conf 2008; 200202.

  • 8. Mills ML, St. Jean G, Cash W. Clinical application of bovine distal limb anatomy. Agri-Practice 1996; 17: 1419.

  • 9. Pejsa TG, St. Jean G, Hoffsis GF, et al. Digit amputation in cattle—85 cases (1971–1990). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1993; 202: 981984.

  • 10. Dietz O, Kehnscherper G. Local intravenous antimicrobial treatment of purulent infections of the distal equine limb. Prakt Tierarz t 1990; 71: 3033.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Gagnon H, Ferguson JG, Papich MG, et al. Single-dose pharmacokinetics of cefazolin in bovine synovial fluid after intravenous regional injection. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 1994; 17: 3137.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Gilliam JN, Streeter RN, Papich MG, et al. Pharmacokinetics of florfenicol in serum and synovial fluid after regional intravenous perfusion in the distal portion of the hind limb of adult cows. Am J Vet Res 2008; 69: 9971004.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Navarre CB, Zhang L, Sunkara G, et al. Ceftiofur distribution in plasma and joint fluid following regional limb injection in cattle. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 1999; 22: 1319.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Rodrigues CA, Hussni CA, Nascimento ES, et al. Pharmacokinetics of tetracycline in plasma, synovial fluid and milk using single intravenous and single intravenous regional doses in dairy cattle with papillomatous digital dermatitis. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2010; 33: 363370.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Rubio-Martínez LM, Elmas CR, Black B, et al. Clinical use of antimicrobial regional limb perfusion in horses: 174 cases (1999–2009). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2012; 241: 16501658.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Finsterbush A, Weinberg H. Venous perfusion of limb with antibiotics for osteomyelitis and other chronic infections. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1972; 54: 12271234.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Santschi EM, Adams SB, Murphey ED. How to perform equine intravenous digital perfusion, in Proceedings. 44th Annu Conv Am Assoc Equine Pract 1998; 198201.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Simpson KM, Streeter RN, Cramer S, et al. Caudal vena caval thrombosis following treatment of deep digital sepsis. Can Vet J 2012; 53: 182186.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Koterba AM, Brewer BD, Tarplee FA. Clinical and clinicopathological characteristics of the septicemic neonatal foal—review of 38 cases. Equine Vet J 1984; 16: 376382.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. Bergsten C. Infectious diseases of the digits. In: Greenough PR, Weaver AD, ed. Lameness in cattle. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1997; 89100.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. Wilson WD, Madigan JE. Comparison of bacterial culture of blood and necropsy specimens for determining the cause of foal septicemia—47 cases (1978–1987). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1989; 195: 17591763.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22. Lorenzo-Figueras M, Pusterla N, Byrne BA, et al. In vitro evaluation of three bacterial culture systems for the recovery of Escherichia coli from equine blood. Am J Vet Res 2006; 67: 20252029.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23. Pusterla N, Mapes S, Byrne BA, et al. Detection of bloodstream infection in neonatal foals with suspected sepsis using real-time PCR. Vet Rec 2009; 165: 114117.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. Pammi M, Flores A, Leeflang M, et al. Molecular assays in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pediatrics 2011; 128:e973e985.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25. Paolucci M, Stanzani M, Melchionda F, et al. Routine use of a real-time polymerase chain reaction method for detection of bloodstream infections in neutropaenic patients. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2013; 75: 130134.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26. Shanthachol T, Nilgate S, Suankratay C. A comparative study to determine the recovery rate of microorganisms of bloodstream infections: two versus three blood culture specimens. J Med Assoc Thai 2012; 95: 10531058.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27. Johnson SM, Saint John BE, Dine AP. Local anesthetics as antimicrobial agents: a review. Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2008; 9: 205213.

  • 28. Olsen KM, Peddicord TE, Campbell GD, et al. Antimicrobial effects of lidocaine in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. J Antimicrob Chemother 2000; 45: 217219.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29. Sasagawa S. Inhibitory effects of local anesthetics on migration, extracellular release of lysosomal enzyme, and superoxide anion production in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 1991; 13: 607622.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30. Mikawa K, Akamatsu H, Nishina K, et al. Effects of ropivacaine on human neutrophil function: comparison with bupivacaine and lidocaine. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2003; 20: 104110.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31. Peck SL, Johnston RB, Horwitz LD. Reduced neutrophil superoxide anion release after prolonged infusions of lidocaine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1985; 235: 418422.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32. Tomoda MK, Tsuchiya M, Ueda W, et al. Lidocaine inhibits stimulation-coupled responses of neutrophils and protein kinase C activity. Physiol Chem Phys Med NMR 1990; 22: 199210.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33. Amin JD, Zaria LT, Malgwi RM. Vaginal aerobic bacterial flora of apparently healthy cattle in various stages of the reproductive cycle in the Sahel Region of Nigeria. Bull Anim Health Prod Afr 1996; 44: 1518.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34. Langer K, Seidler C, Partsch H. Ultrastructural study of the dermal microvasculature in patients undergoing retrograde intravenous pressure infusion. Dermatology 1996; 192: 103109.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35. Kofler J, Martinek B, Kubber-Heiss A, et al. Generalised distal limb vessel thrombosis in two cows with digital and inner organ infections. Vet J 2004; 167: 107110.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36. Steiner A, Ossent P, Mathis GA. Intravenous regional anesthesia antibiosis in cattle—indications, technique, complications. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 1990; 132: 227237.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Bacteremia in the pedal circulation following regional intravenous perfusion of a 2% lidocaine solution in cattle with deep digital sepsis

Katharine M. Simpson DVM, MS1, Robert N. Streeter DVM, MS2, Jared D. Taylor DVM, MPH, PhD3, Tamara B. Gull DVM, PhD4, and Douglas L. Step DVM5
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078.
  • | 2 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078.
  • | 3 Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078.
  • | 4 Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078.
  • | 5 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078.

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate whether pedal bacteremia develops following regional IV perfusion (RIVP) of a 2% lidocaine hydrochloride solution in cattle with deep digital sepsis (DDS) and to determine which bacterial pathogens are most commonly isolated from the pedal circulation.

Design—Prospective observational cohort study.

Animals—9 adult cattle with DDS in 10 limbs and 10 healthy adult cattle with no evidence of lameness or digital infection.

Procedures—Blood samples were obtained aseptically from the dorsal common digital vein immediately following tourniquet application and 30 to 60 minutes after aseptic RIVP with a 2% lidocaine solution. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures were performed on all samples collected. For cattle with DDS, clinical examination with or without debridement of digital lesions was performed after RIVP.

Results—Bacteria were isolated from pedal blood prior to RIVP in 1 cow with DDS and after RIVP and examination with or without debridement in that cow and 4 additional cattle with DDS. Bacteria were not isolated from any blood sample obtained from the healthy cattle. Of the 8 bacterial isolates identified, 5 were gram-positive facultative anaerobes. Cattle with DDS were significantly more likely to develop bacteremia in the pedal circulation than were healthy cattle following RIVP.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that bacteremia may be present in the pedal circulation before and following RIVP and examination with or without debridement in cattle with DDS. Thus, systemic or local antimicrobial treatment might be warranted prior to or concurrently with RIVP in cattle with DDS.

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate whether pedal bacteremia develops following regional IV perfusion (RIVP) of a 2% lidocaine hydrochloride solution in cattle with deep digital sepsis (DDS) and to determine which bacterial pathogens are most commonly isolated from the pedal circulation.

Design—Prospective observational cohort study.

Animals—9 adult cattle with DDS in 10 limbs and 10 healthy adult cattle with no evidence of lameness or digital infection.

Procedures—Blood samples were obtained aseptically from the dorsal common digital vein immediately following tourniquet application and 30 to 60 minutes after aseptic RIVP with a 2% lidocaine solution. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures were performed on all samples collected. For cattle with DDS, clinical examination with or without debridement of digital lesions was performed after RIVP.

Results—Bacteria were isolated from pedal blood prior to RIVP in 1 cow with DDS and after RIVP and examination with or without debridement in that cow and 4 additional cattle with DDS. Bacteria were not isolated from any blood sample obtained from the healthy cattle. Of the 8 bacterial isolates identified, 5 were gram-positive facultative anaerobes. Cattle with DDS were significantly more likely to develop bacteremia in the pedal circulation than were healthy cattle following RIVP.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that bacteremia may be present in the pedal circulation before and following RIVP and examination with or without debridement in cattle with DDS. Thus, systemic or local antimicrobial treatment might be warranted prior to or concurrently with RIVP in cattle with DDS.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Simpson's present address is Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

All work was done at the Oklahoma State University Boren Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, Stillwater, OK 74078.

This manuscript represents a portion of a thesis submitted by Dr. Simpson to the Oklahoma State University Graduate College as partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master of Science degree.

Supported by a grant from the Research Advisory Committee at Oklahoma State University.

Presented in abstract form at the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine Forum, Seattle, June 2013.

The authors thank Dr. Suzanne Genova and Ashley Wick for assistance.

Address correspondence to Dr. Simpson (katharine.simpson@cvm.osu.edu).