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Appendicular osteosarcoma in small-breed dogs: 51 cases (1986–2011)

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  • 1 Departments of Companion Animals, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, C1A 4P3, Canada
  • | 2 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523
  • | 3 Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802
  • | 4 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610
  • | 5 Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616
  • | 6 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523
  • | 7 Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523
  • | 8 Health Management, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, C1A 4P3, Canada
  • | 9 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610

Abstract

Objective—To describe outcomes for small-breed dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma.

Design—Multi-institutional retrospective case series.

Animals—51 small-breed dogs.

Procedures—Records from participating Veterinary Society of Surgical Oncology members were searched for dogs that weighed ≤ 15 kg (33 lb) with a histologic diagnosis of appendicular osteosarcoma. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine median survival times (MSTs), and Cox regression was performed to identify variables associated with survival time.

Results—Tumors were most commonly located on the humerus (n = 15) and femur (14). Of the 51 study dogs, 9 were treated nonsurgically, 16 underwent amputation of the affected limb only, and 26 underwent curative-intent treatment, with MSTs of 112, 257, and 415 days, respectively. The MST did not differ significantly between dogs in the amputation-only and curative-intent groups. For dogs in the nonsurgical group, MST decreased significantly as the tumor histologic score increased. For dogs in the amputation-only group, MST decreased as body weight increased.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—For the small-breed dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma of the present study, tumor histologic grade and mitotic index were subjectively lower and MST following amputation of the affected limb without adjuvant chemotherapy was longer, compared with those for similarly affected larger dogs. Results indicated no significant advantage in MST for dogs that underwent curative-intent treatment versus dogs that underwent amputation only, and further investigation of the importance of adjuvant chemotherapy is warranted.

Abstract

Objective—To describe outcomes for small-breed dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma.

Design—Multi-institutional retrospective case series.

Animals—51 small-breed dogs.

Procedures—Records from participating Veterinary Society of Surgical Oncology members were searched for dogs that weighed ≤ 15 kg (33 lb) with a histologic diagnosis of appendicular osteosarcoma. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine median survival times (MSTs), and Cox regression was performed to identify variables associated with survival time.

Results—Tumors were most commonly located on the humerus (n = 15) and femur (14). Of the 51 study dogs, 9 were treated nonsurgically, 16 underwent amputation of the affected limb only, and 26 underwent curative-intent treatment, with MSTs of 112, 257, and 415 days, respectively. The MST did not differ significantly between dogs in the amputation-only and curative-intent groups. For dogs in the nonsurgical group, MST decreased significantly as the tumor histologic score increased. For dogs in the amputation-only group, MST decreased as body weight increased.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—For the small-breed dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma of the present study, tumor histologic grade and mitotic index were subjectively lower and MST following amputation of the affected limb without adjuvant chemotherapy was longer, compared with those for similarly affected larger dogs. Results indicated no significant advantage in MST for dogs that underwent curative-intent treatment versus dogs that underwent amputation only, and further investigation of the importance of adjuvant chemotherapy is warranted.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Farese's present address is VCA Animal Care Center of Sonoma County, 6470 Redwood Dr, Rohnert Park, CA 94928. Dr. Selmic's present address is Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802.

Presented in abstract form at the Annual Congress of the European College of Veterinary Surgeons, Barcelona, Spain, July 2012.

The authors thank Drs. Sarah Boston, Elaine Caplan, Paolo Buracco, Giorgio Romanelli, Francisco Alvarez, Gerald Post, Tracy Ladue, Kenji Hosoya, Satoshi Takagi, and Jolle Kirpenstein for contributing cases to the study.

Address correspondence to Dr. Amsellem (pamsellem@upei.ca).