• 1. Cornick JL, Seahorn TL. Cardiac arrhythmias identified in horses with duodenitis/proximal jejunitis: six cases (1985–1988). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1990; 197: 10541059.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Reimer JM, Sweeney RW, Reef VB. ECG of the month. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997; 191: 4243.

  • 3. Reimer JM, Reef VB, Sweeney RW. Ventricular arrhythmias in horses: 21 cases. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1992; 201: 12371243.

  • 4. Wilkins PA, Bain FT. ECG of the month. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1993; 203: 972973.

  • 5. King JN, Gerring EL. Detection of endotoxemia in cases of equine colic. Vet Rec 1988; 123: 269271.

  • 6. McClure JJ, McClure JR, Johnson DW. Detection of endotoxin in the blood and peritoneal fluid in ponies with experimentally created strangulation obstruction of the small intestine, in Proceedings. 28th Annu Meet Am Asssoc Equine Pract 1982; 11021108.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Bonagura JD, Reef VB, Schwarzwald CC. Cardiovascular diseases. In: Reed S, Bayly W, Sellon D, eds. Equine internal medicine. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 2010;372487.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Reef VB. Cardiovascular ultrasonography. In: Reef VB, ed. Equine diagnostic ultrasound. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1998;215272.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Argiroudis SA, Joyce EK, Blackmore DJ. Observations on the isoenzymes of creatine kinase in equine serum and tissues. Equine Vet J 1982; 14: 317321.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Fujii Y, Ikeda S, Watanabe H. Analysis of creatine kinase isoenzyme in racehorse serum and tissues. Bull Equine Res Inst 1983; 17: 2131.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Cornelisse CJ, Schott HC II, Olivier NB, et al. Concentration of cardiac troponin I in a horse with a ruptured aortic regurgitation jet lesion and ventricular tachycardia. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000; 217: 231235.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Schwarzwald CC, Hardy J, Buccellato M. High cardiac troponin I serum concentration in a horse with multiform ventricular tachycardia and myocardial necrosis. J Vet Intern Med 2003; 17: 364368.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Schoeber K, Kirbach B, Oechtering G. Myocardial cell injury from traumatic, degenerative, and metabolic heart disease in dogs, in Proceedings. 17th Annu Meet Am Coll Vet Intern Med 1999;6667.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Smith SC, Landeson JH, Mason JW, et al. Elevations of cardiac troponin I associated with myocarditis. Experimental and clinical correlates. Circulation 1997; 95: 163168.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Divers TJ, Kraus MS, Jesty SA, et al. Clinical findings and serum cardiac troponin I concentrations in horses after intragastric administration of sodium monensin. J Vet Diagn Invest 2009; 21: 338343.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Decloedt A, Verheyen T, De Clercq D, et al. Acute and long-term cardiomyopathy and delayed neurotoxicity after accidental lasalocid poisoning in horses. J Vet Intern Med 2012; 26: 10051011.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Verheyen T, Decloedt D, De Clercq D, et al. Cardiac changes in horses with atypical myopathy. J Vet Intern Med 2012; 26: 10191026.

  • 18. Nath LC, Anderson GA, Hinchcliff KW, et al. Serum cardiac troponin I concentrations in horses with cardiac disease. Aust Vet J 2012; 90: 351357.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Slack J, Boston RC, Soma L, et al. Cardiac troponin I in racing Standardbreds. J Vet Intern Med 2012; 26: 12021208.

  • 20. Nath LC, Anderson GA, Hinchcliff KW, et al. Clinicopathologic evidence of myocardial injury in horses with acute abdominal disease. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2012; 241: 12021208.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. Moore JN, Morris DD. Endotoxemia and septicemia in horses: experimental and clinical correlates. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1992; 200: 19031914.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22. Meyers K, Reed S, Keck M, et al. Circulating endotoxin like substance(s) and altered hemostasis in horses with gastrointestinal disorders: an interim report. Am J Vet Res 1982; 43: 22332238.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23. Moore JN, Garner HE, Shapland JE, et al. Lactic acidosis and arterial hypoxemia during sublethal endotoxemia in conscious ponies. Am J Vet Res 1980; 41: 16961698.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. Natanson C, Eichenholz P, Danner R, et al. Endotoxin and tumor necrosis factor challenges in dogs simulate the cardiovascular profile of human septic shock. J Exp Med 1989; 169: 823832.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25. Suffredini AF, Fromm RE, Parker MM, et al. The cardiovascular response of normal humans to the administration of endotoxin. N Engl J Med 1989; 321: 280287.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26. Nostell K, Brojer J, Hoglund K, et al. Cardiac troponin I and the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias in horses with experimentally induced endotoxemia. Vet J 2012; 192: 171175.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27. Slack JA, Mc Guirk SM, Erb HN, et al. Biochemical markers of cardiac injury in normal, surviving septic, or nonsurviving septic neonatal foals. J Vet Intern Med 2005; 19: 577580.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28. ver Elst KM, Spapen HD, Nguyen DN, et al. Cardiac troponins I and T are biological markers of left ventricular dysfunction in septic shock. Clin Chem 2000; 46: 650657.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29. O'Brien PJ. Cardiac troponin is the most effective translational safety biomarker for myocardial injury in cardiotoxicity. Toxicology 2008; 245: 206218.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30. Babuin L, Jaffe AS. Troponin: the biomarker of choice for the detection of cardiac injury. CMAJ 2005; 173: 11911202.

  • 31. O'Brien PJ, Landt Y, Lsdenson JH. Differential reactivity of cardiac and skeletal muscle from various species in a cardiac troponin I immunoassay. Clin Chem 1997; 43: 23332338.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32. O'Brien PJ, Dameron GW, Beck ML, et al. Differential reactivity of cardiac and skeletal muscle from various species in two generations of cardiac troponin-T immunoassays. Res Vet Sci 1998; 65: 135137.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33. Rishniw M, Simpson KW. Cloning and sequencing of equine cardiac troponin I and confirmation of its usefulness as a target analyte for commercial troponin I analyzers. J Vet Diagn Invest 2005; 17: 582584.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34. Smith GW, Constable PD, Foreman JH, et al. Cardiovascular changes associated with intravenous administration of fumonisin B1 in horses. Am J Vet Res 2002; 63: 538545.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35. Diana A, Guglielmini C, Candini D, et al. Cardiac arrhythmias associated with piroplasmosis in the horse: a case report. Vet J 2007; 174: 193195.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36. Hoolbrook TC, Birks EK, Sleeper MM, et al. Endurance exercise is associated with increased plasma cardiac troponin I in horses. Equine Exerc Physiol 2006; 36: 2731.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37. Decloedt A, Verheyen T, Sys S, et al. Tissue doppler imaging and 2-dimensional speckle tracking of left ventricular function in horses exposed to lasalocid. J Vet Intern Med 2012; 26:10091016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38. Gilliam LL, Holbrook TC, Ownby CL, et al. Cardiotoxicity, inflammation, and immune response after rattlesnake envenomation in the horse. J Vet Intern Med 2012; 26: 14571463.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39. Ricchiuti V, Sharkey SW, Murakami MM, et al. Cardiac troponin I and T alterations in dog hearts with myocardial infarction: correlation with infarct size. Am J Clin Pathol 1998; 110: 241247.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40. Radcliffe RM, Divers TJ, Fletcher DJ, et al. Evaluation of l-lactate and cardiac troponin I in horses undergoing emergency abdominal surgery. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 2012; 22: 313319.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41. Schober KE, Cornand C, Kirbach B, et al. Serum cardiac troponin I and cardiac troponin T concentrations in dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002; 221: 381388.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42. Burgener IA, Kovacevic A, Mauldin N, et al. Cardiac troponins as indicators of acute myocardial damage in dogs. J Vet Intern Med 2006; 20: 277283.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43. Durando MM, Reef VB, Kline K, et al. Acute effects of short duration maximal exercise on cardiac troponin I in healthy horses. Equine Comp Exerc Physiol 2006; 4: 217223.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44. Kraus MS, Kaufer BB, Damiani A, et al. Elimination half-life of intravenously administered equine cardiac troponin I in healthy ponies. Equine Vet J 2013; 45: 5659.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45. Slack J, Boston R, Driessen B, et al. Effect of general anesthesia on plasma cardiac troponin I concentrations in healthy horses. J Vet Cardiol 2011; 13: 163169.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46. Jesty SA, Kraus MS, Gelzer AR, et al. Effect of transvenous electrical cardioversion on plasma cardiac troponin I concentrations in horses with atrial fibrillation [Erratum published in J Vet Intern Med 2009; 23:1357]. J Vet Intern Med 2009; 23: 11031107.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47. Opie LH. Electricity out of control: ventricular arrhythmias. In: Opie LH, ed. The heart. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1998;589608.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48. Tennent-Brown BS, Wilkins PA, Lindborg S, et al. Sequential plasma lactate concentrations as prognostic indicators in adult equine emergencies. J Vet Intern Med 2010; 24: 198205.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Cardiac troponin I concentrations in horses with colic

Olga M. Seco DíazDepartment of Clinical Studies, New Bolton Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Kennett Square, PA 19348.

Search for other papers by Olga M. Seco Díaz in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 LV
,
Mary M. DurandoDepartment of Clinical Studies, New Bolton Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Kennett Square, PA 19348.

Search for other papers by Mary M. Durando in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, PhD
,
Eric K. BirksDepartment of Clinical Studies, New Bolton Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Kennett Square, PA 19348.

Search for other papers by Eric K. Birks in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, PhD
, and
Virginia B. ReefDepartment of Clinical Studies, New Bolton Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Kennett Square, PA 19348.

Search for other papers by Virginia B. Reef in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM

Abstract

Objective—To determine prevalence of myocardial injury in horses with colic on the basis of high concentrations of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), frequency of cardiac arrhythmias within the first 24 to 48 hours after hospital admission or surgery because of colic, and associations between high cTnI concentrations and cardiac arrhythmias, clinical course, and outcome (survival to discharge from hospital vs nonsurvival [death or euthanasia]).

Design—Prospective observational study.

Animals—111 horses with colic.

Procedures—Blood was drawn at admission and 12 and 24 hours after admission if horses were treated medically or 12 and 24 hours after surgery if treated surgically. A 24-hour ambulatory ECG was recorded beginning the morning after admission in medically treated cases or after surgery and evaluated for arrhythmias. Clinical and clinicopathologic data and outcome were obtained. Associations between cTnI concentrations and other variables were determined.

Results—An abnormal cTnI concentration (≥ 0.10 ng/mL) at admission was significantly associated with the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias, outcome, and surgical treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The data suggested that horses with colic and high cTnI concentrations at admission were more likely to have ventricular arrhythmias and have a less favorable prognosis for recovery. High cTnI concentrations in horses with colic were suggestive of myocardial damage.

Abstract

Objective—To determine prevalence of myocardial injury in horses with colic on the basis of high concentrations of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), frequency of cardiac arrhythmias within the first 24 to 48 hours after hospital admission or surgery because of colic, and associations between high cTnI concentrations and cardiac arrhythmias, clinical course, and outcome (survival to discharge from hospital vs nonsurvival [death or euthanasia]).

Design—Prospective observational study.

Animals—111 horses with colic.

Procedures—Blood was drawn at admission and 12 and 24 hours after admission if horses were treated medically or 12 and 24 hours after surgery if treated surgically. A 24-hour ambulatory ECG was recorded beginning the morning after admission in medically treated cases or after surgery and evaluated for arrhythmias. Clinical and clinicopathologic data and outcome were obtained. Associations between cTnI concentrations and other variables were determined.

Results—An abnormal cTnI concentration (≥ 0.10 ng/mL) at admission was significantly associated with the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias, outcome, and surgical treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The data suggested that horses with colic and high cTnI concentrations at admission were more likely to have ventricular arrhythmias and have a less favorable prognosis for recovery. High cTnI concentrations in horses with colic were suggestive of myocardial damage.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Durando and Dr. Birks’ present address is Equine Sports Medicine Consultants, 523 Chesterville Rd, Landenberg, PA 19350.

Supported in part by Dade Behring.

Presented in part at the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine Forum, Montreal, June 2009.

Address correspondence to Dr. Seco Díaz (olgaseco@vet.upenn.edu).