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Osteosarcoma following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy in dogs: 29 cases (1997–2011)

Laura E. Selmic BVETMED, mph1, Stewart D. Ryan BVSC, MS2, Sarah E. Boston DVM, DVSC3, Julius M. Liptak BVSC, MVetClinStud4, William T. N. Culp VMD5, Angela J. Sartor DVM6, Cassandra Y. Prpich BVSc7, and Stephen J. Withrow DVM8
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  • 1 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523
  • | 2 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523
  • | 3 Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1H 3N2, Canada
  • | 4 Alta Vista Animal Hospital, 2616 Bank's St, Ottawa, ON K1T 1M9, Canada.
  • | 5 Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616
  • | 6 SAGE Centers for Veterinary Specialty and Emergency Care, 1410 Monument Blvd, Concord, CA 94520
  • | 7 Southpaws Specialty Surgery for Animals, 3 Roper St, Moorabbin, VIC 3189, Australia
  • | 8 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523

Abstract

Objective—To determine the signalment, tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) plate type, clinical staging information, treatment, and oncological outcome in dogs that developed osteosarcoma at the proximal aspect of the tibia following TPLO and to calculate the interval between TPLO and osteosarcoma diagnosis.

Design—Multi-institutional retrospective case series.

Animals—29 dogs.

Procedures—Medical records from 8 participating institutions were searched for dogs that developed osteosarcoma (confirmed through cytologic or histologic evaluation) at previous TPLO sites. Signalment, TPLO details, staging tests, treatment data, and outcome information were recorded. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and disease-free intervals and survival times were evaluated by means of Kaplan-Meier analysis.

Results—29 dogs met the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 9.2 years and mean weight was 45.1 kg (99.2 lb) at the time of osteosarcoma diagnosis. Most dogs had swelling over the proximal aspect of the tibia (17/21) and lameness of the affected limb (28/29). The mean interval between TPLO and osteosarcoma diagnosis was 5.3 years. One type of cast stainless steel TPLO plate was used in most (18) dogs; the remaining dogs had received plates of wrought stainless steel (n = 4) or unrecorded type (7). Twenty-three of 29 dogs underwent treatment for osteosarcoma. Median survival time for 10 dogs that underwent amputation of the affected limb and received ≥ 1 chemotherapeutic treatment was 313 days.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results supported that osteosarcoma should be a differential diagnosis for dogs with a history of TPLO that later develop lameness and swelling at the previous surgical site. Oncological outcome following amputation and chemotherapy appeared to be similar to outcomes previously reported for dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma.

Abstract

Objective—To determine the signalment, tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) plate type, clinical staging information, treatment, and oncological outcome in dogs that developed osteosarcoma at the proximal aspect of the tibia following TPLO and to calculate the interval between TPLO and osteosarcoma diagnosis.

Design—Multi-institutional retrospective case series.

Animals—29 dogs.

Procedures—Medical records from 8 participating institutions were searched for dogs that developed osteosarcoma (confirmed through cytologic or histologic evaluation) at previous TPLO sites. Signalment, TPLO details, staging tests, treatment data, and outcome information were recorded. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and disease-free intervals and survival times were evaluated by means of Kaplan-Meier analysis.

Results—29 dogs met the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 9.2 years and mean weight was 45.1 kg (99.2 lb) at the time of osteosarcoma diagnosis. Most dogs had swelling over the proximal aspect of the tibia (17/21) and lameness of the affected limb (28/29). The mean interval between TPLO and osteosarcoma diagnosis was 5.3 years. One type of cast stainless steel TPLO plate was used in most (18) dogs; the remaining dogs had received plates of wrought stainless steel (n = 4) or unrecorded type (7). Twenty-three of 29 dogs underwent treatment for osteosarcoma. Median survival time for 10 dogs that underwent amputation of the affected limb and received ≥ 1 chemotherapeutic treatment was 313 days.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results supported that osteosarcoma should be a differential diagnosis for dogs with a history of TPLO that later develop lameness and swelling at the previous surgical site. Oncological outcome following amputation and chemotherapy appeared to be similar to outcomes previously reported for dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma.

Contributor Notes

Dr Selmic's present address is Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802.

Dr. Ryan's present address is Small Animal Surgery Service, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Melbourne, Werribee, VIC 3030, Australia.

Dr. Boston's present address is Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32608.

Presented in abstract form at the Veterinary Society of Surgical Oncology Symposium, Fort Collins, Colo, May 2012, and the Veterinary Orthopedic Society Meeting, Park City, Utah, March 2013.

The authors thank Jeffrey Neu, Mary Lafferty, Irene Mok, Vicky Jamieson, and Drs. Maura O'Brien and Simon Kudnig for technical assistance.

Address correspondence to Dr. Selmic (lselmic@illinois.edu).