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Dental radiographic findings in cats with chronic gingivostomatitis (2002–2012)

Nicodin Farcas DVM1, Milinda J. Lommer DVM2, Philip H. Kass DVM, MPVM, PhD3, and Frank J. M. Verstraete DrMedVet, MMedVet4
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  • 1 William R. Pritchard Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616
  • | 2 Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616
  • | 3 Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 4 Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616

Abstract

Objective—To compare dental radiographic findings in cats with and without feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCGS).

Design—Retrospective case-control study.

Animals—101 cats with FCGS (cases) and 101 cats with other oral diseases (controls).

Procedures—Controls were age- and treatment date–matched with cases. Conventional full-mouth dental radiographic views were evaluated for distribution, pattern, and severity of alveolar bone loss (periodontitis), tooth resorption, buccal bone expansion, tooth fractures, and retained roots.

Results—All cases and 77 (76%) controls had periodontitis; differences in extent and severity of periodontitis were significant, with semigeneralized or generalized and moderate or severe periodontitis in 78 (77%) and 93 (92%) cases, respectively, and 28 (28%) and 38 (38%) controls, respectively. The pattern of alveolar bone loss in cases was dominated by horizontal bone loss, with a nonsignificant increase in vertical bone loss, compared with that of controls. Cases were more likely than controls to have external inflammatory root resorption (49 [49%] vs 25 [25%]) and retained roots (57 [56%] vs 28 [28%]). Fewer dental fractures occurred in cases (14 [14%]) than in controls (35 [35%]). There were no differences between cases and controls in breed, sex, or presence of feline resorptive lesions or buccal bone expansion.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that FCGS was associated with more widely distributed and severe periodontitis, with a higher prevalence of external inflammatory root resorption and retained roots than other oral diseases. Full-mouth radiographic views are indicated for cats with FCGS to diagnose the extent of associated periodontitis, reveal external inflammatory root resorption, and identify retained roots.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Farcas' present address is the Matthew J. Ryan Veterinary Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.

Address correspondence to Dr. Verstraete (fjverstraete@ucdavis.edu).