• 1. Evans AT, Sawyer DC, Krahwinkel DJ. Effect of a warm-water blanket on development of hypothermia during small animal surgery. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1973; 163: 147148.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Redondo J, Suesta P, Gil L, et al. Retrospective study of the prevalence of postanesthetic hypothermia in cats. Vet Rec 2012; 170: 15.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Pottie RG, Dart CM, Perkins NR, et al. Effect of hypothermia on recovery from general anesthesia in the dog. Aust Vet J 2007; 85: 158162.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Beal MW, Brown DC, Shofer FS. The effects of perioperative hypothermia and the duration of anesthesia on postoperative wound infection rate in clean wounds: a retrospective study. Vet Surg 2000; 29: 123127.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Armstrong S, Roberts B, Aronsohn M. Perioperative hypothermia. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2005; 15: 3237.

  • 6. Posner L. Perioperative hypothermia in veterinary patients. NAVC Clin Brief 2007; 5: 1923.

  • 7. Oliver JA, Clark L, Corletto F, et al. A comparison of anesthetic complications between diabetic and nondiabetic dogs undergoing phacoemulsification cataract surgery: a retrospective study. Vet Ophthalmol 2010; 13: 244250.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Sessler DI. Mild perioperative hypothermia. N Engl J Med 1997; 336: 17301737.

  • 9. Sessler DI. Temperature monitoring. In: Miller RD, ed. Anesthesia. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone, 2000; 13671389.

  • 10. Matsukawa T, Sessler D, Sessler A, et al. Heat flow and distribution during induction of general anesthesia. Anesthesiology 1995; 82: 662673.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Oncken AK, Kirby R, Rudloff E. Hypothermia in critically ill dogs and cats. Compend Contin Educ Small Anim Pract 2001; 23: 506521.

  • 12. Sessler DI, Moayeri A. Skin-surface warming: heat flux and central temperature. Anesthesiology 1990; 73: 218224.

  • 13. Sessler DI. Consequences and treatment of perioperative hypothermia. Anesthesiol Clin North Am 1994; 12: 425456.

  • 14. Cabell LW, Perkowski SZ, Gregor T, et al. The effects of active peripheral skin warming on perioperative hypothermia in dogs. Vet Surg 1997; 26: 7985.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Franklin MA, Rochat MC, Payton ME, et al. Comparison of three intraoperative patient warming systems. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2012; 48: 1824.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Sessler DI. Complications and treatment of mild hypothermia. Anesthesiology 2001; 95: 531543.

  • 17. Just B, Trevien V, Delva E, et al. Prevention of intraoperative hypothermia by preoperative skin-surface warming. Anesthesiology 1993; 79: 214218.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Faries G, Carden J, Pruitt KM, et al. Temperature relationship to distance and flow rate of warmed IV fluids. Ann Emerg Med 1991; 20: 4850.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Smith C, Wagner K. Principles of fluid and blood warming in trauma. Int Trauma Care 2008; 18: 7179.

  • 20. Patel N, Smith C, Pinchak A, et al. Prospective, randomized comparison of the Flotem IIe and Hotline fluid warmers in anesthetized adults. J Clin Anesth 1996; 8: 307316.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. Horowitz PE, Delagarza MA, Pulaski JJ, et al. Flow rates and warming efficacy with Hotline and Ranger blood/fluid warmers. Anesth Analg 2004; 99: 788792.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22. Schnoor J, Weber I, Macko S, et al. Heating capabilities of the Hotline and Autoline at low flow rates. Paediatr Anaesth 2006; 16: 410416.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23. Dix GM, Jones A, Knowles TG, et al. Methods used in veterinary practice to maintain the temperature of intravenous fluids. Vet Rec 2006; 159: 451455.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. Smiths Medical Inc. Hotline blood and fluid warmer. Available at: www.internetmed.com/sites/default/files/Smiths_Fluid_Warmer_-_General_technical_manual.pdf. Accessed Feb 1, 2013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25. Davis H, Jensen T, Johnson T, et al. 2013 AAHA/AAFP fluid therapy guidelines for dogs and cats. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2013; 49: 149159.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26. Chiang V, Hopper K, Mellema M, et al. In vitro evaluation of the efficacy of a veterinary dry heat fluid warmer. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 2011; 21: 639647.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27. Gentilello LM, Moujaes S. Treatment of hypothermia in trauma victims: thermodynamic considerations. J Intensive Care Med 1995; 10: 514.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

In vitro evaluation of three intravenous fluid line warmers

Rebecca A. Lee DVM1, Heather A. Towle Millard DVM, MS2, Ann B. Weil MS, DVM3, Gary Lantz DVM4, Peter Constable BVSc, PhD5, Timothy B. Lescun BVSc, MS6, and Hsin-Yi Weng BVM, PhD7
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
  • | 2 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
  • | 3 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
  • | 4 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
  • | 5 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
  • | 6 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
  • | 7 Department of Comparative Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.

Abstract

Objective—To determine in vitro output temperature differences of 3 IV fluid warmers.

Design—Prospective, randomized study.

Sample—3 IV fluid warmers.

Procedures—Warming capabilities of a distance-dependent blood and fluid warmer marketed for human and veterinary use (product A) and a veterinary-specific distance-dependent fluid warmer (product B) were compared at 0, 4, 8, and 12 cm from the device to the test vein and at flow rates of 20, 60, 100, 140, 180, 220, 260, and 300 mL/h with room temperature (approx 22°C) fluids (phase 1). The superior warming device was compared against a distance-independent IV fluid warmer (product C) with room temperature fluids at the same flow rates (phase 2). The effect of prewarmed fluids (38°C) versus room temperature fluids was evaluated with the superior warming device from phase 2 (phase 3).

Results—In phase 1, product B produced significantly warmer fluids than product A for all flow rates and distances. Both distance-dependent devices produced warmer fluid at 0 cm, compared with 4, 8, and 12 cm. In phase 2, product B produced warmer fluid than product C at 60, 100, 140, and 180 mL/h. In phase 3, there was no significant benefit to use of prewarmed fluids versus room temperature fluids. Output temperatures ≥ 36.4°C were achieved for all rates ≥ 60 mL/h.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Product B had superior warming capabilities. Placing the fluid warmer close to the patient is recommended. Use of prewarmed fluids had no benefit. Lower IV fluid flow rates resulted in lower output fluid temperatures.

Abstract

Objective—To determine in vitro output temperature differences of 3 IV fluid warmers.

Design—Prospective, randomized study.

Sample—3 IV fluid warmers.

Procedures—Warming capabilities of a distance-dependent blood and fluid warmer marketed for human and veterinary use (product A) and a veterinary-specific distance-dependent fluid warmer (product B) were compared at 0, 4, 8, and 12 cm from the device to the test vein and at flow rates of 20, 60, 100, 140, 180, 220, 260, and 300 mL/h with room temperature (approx 22°C) fluids (phase 1). The superior warming device was compared against a distance-independent IV fluid warmer (product C) with room temperature fluids at the same flow rates (phase 2). The effect of prewarmed fluids (38°C) versus room temperature fluids was evaluated with the superior warming device from phase 2 (phase 3).

Results—In phase 1, product B produced significantly warmer fluids than product A for all flow rates and distances. Both distance-dependent devices produced warmer fluid at 0 cm, compared with 4, 8, and 12 cm. In phase 2, product B produced warmer fluid than product C at 60, 100, 140, and 180 mL/h. In phase 3, there was no significant benefit to use of prewarmed fluids versus room temperature fluids. Output temperatures ≥ 36.4°C were achieved for all rates ≥ 60 mL/h.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Product B had superior warming capabilities. Placing the fluid warmer close to the patient is recommended. Use of prewarmed fluids had no benefit. Lower IV fluid flow rates resulted in lower output fluid temperatures.

Contributor Notes

This manuscript represents a portion of a thesis submitted by Dr. Lee to the Purdue University Veterinary Clinical Sciences Department as partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master of Science degree.

Presented in abstract form at the 12th Annual Society of Veterinary Soft Tissue, Grand Haven, Mich, June 2013.

The authors thank Dr. Aaron M. Luth for graphics.

Address correspondence to Dr. Towle Millard (millardh@purdue.edu).