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Sleeping and resting respiratory rates in dogs with subclinical heart disease

Dan G. OhadDepartment of Clinical Sciences, The Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76100, Israel.

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Mark RishniwVeterinary Information Network, 777 W Covell Blvd, Davis, CA, 95616.

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Ingrid LjungvallDepartment of Clinical Sciences, University Animal Hospital, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.

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Francesco PorcielloDepartment of Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy 06100.

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Jens HäggströmDepartment of Clinical Sciences, University Animal Hospital, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.

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Abstract

Objective—To characterize sleeping respiratory rates (SRRs) and resting respiratory rates (RRRs), collected in the home environment, of dogs with subclinical heart disease that could result in left-sided congestive heart failure.

Design—Prospective cross-sectional study.

Animals—190 adult dogs with subclinical left-sided heart disease.

Procedures—Most dogs had mitral valve disease or dilated cardiomyopathy of various severities. Clients collected ten 1-minute SRRs or RRRs during a period ranging from 1 week to 6 months. Clinicians provided echocardiographic and medical data on each patient.

Results—The within-dog mean SRR (SRRmean; 16 breaths/min) was significantly lower than the within-dog mean RRR (RRRmean; 21 breaths/min). Seven dogs had SRRmean and 33 dogs had RRRmean > 25 breaths/min; 1 dog had SRRmean and 12 dogs had RRRmean > 30 breaths/min; these dogs mostly had a left atrial (LA)-to-aortic ratio > 1.8. Dogs with moderate LA enlargement had a significantly higher SRRmean than did other dogs. However, median SRRmean for each of 4 levels of LA enlargement was < 20 breaths/min; median RRRmean for each of 4 levels of LA enlargement was < 25 breaths/min. Both within-dog SRR and RRR remained stable for 10 consecutive measurements. Treatment with cardiac medications or presence of pulmonary hypertension was not associated with SRRmean or RRRmean.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that dogs with confirmed subclinical left-sided heart disease of various severities generally had SRRmean < 25 breaths/min, which was infrequently exceeded at any time, and that SRR and RRR remained stable, regardless of individual within-dog SRRmean or RRRmean. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2013;243:839–843)

Abstract

Objective—To characterize sleeping respiratory rates (SRRs) and resting respiratory rates (RRRs), collected in the home environment, of dogs with subclinical heart disease that could result in left-sided congestive heart failure.

Design—Prospective cross-sectional study.

Animals—190 adult dogs with subclinical left-sided heart disease.

Procedures—Most dogs had mitral valve disease or dilated cardiomyopathy of various severities. Clients collected ten 1-minute SRRs or RRRs during a period ranging from 1 week to 6 months. Clinicians provided echocardiographic and medical data on each patient.

Results—The within-dog mean SRR (SRRmean; 16 breaths/min) was significantly lower than the within-dog mean RRR (RRRmean; 21 breaths/min). Seven dogs had SRRmean and 33 dogs had RRRmean > 25 breaths/min; 1 dog had SRRmean and 12 dogs had RRRmean > 30 breaths/min; these dogs mostly had a left atrial (LA)-to-aortic ratio > 1.8. Dogs with moderate LA enlargement had a significantly higher SRRmean than did other dogs. However, median SRRmean for each of 4 levels of LA enlargement was < 20 breaths/min; median RRRmean for each of 4 levels of LA enlargement was < 25 breaths/min. Both within-dog SRR and RRR remained stable for 10 consecutive measurements. Treatment with cardiac medications or presence of pulmonary hypertension was not associated with SRRmean or RRRmean.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that dogs with confirmed subclinical left-sided heart disease of various severities generally had SRRmean < 25 breaths/min, which was infrequently exceeded at any time, and that SRR and RRR remained stable, regardless of individual within-dog SRRmean or RRRmean. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2013;243:839–843)

Contributor Notes

Presented as an abstract at the 29th American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine Forum, Denver, June 2011.

The authors thank Drs. Aaron Wey, Aleksandra Domanjko Petric, Allison Heaney, Cassidy Sedacca, Cathy Williams, Darlene Blischok-Lapekas, Fabio Spina, Joey Yong-Wei Hung, John MacGregor, Kristin Lavely, Lisbeth Hoier Olsen, Lori Hitchcock, Marc Kraus, Ranko Georgiev, Sarah Scruggs, Simon Dennis, and Vitkor Szatmari for case recruitment.

Address correspondence to Dr. Rishniw (mrishniw@vin.com).