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Risk factors associated with survival in dogs with nontonsillar oral squamous cell carcinoma 31 cases (1990–2010)

Amy J. Fulton DVM1, Ana Nemec DVM, PhD, DAVDC2,3, Brian G. Murphy DVM, PhD, DACVP4, Philip H. Kass DVM, MPVM, PhD, DACVPM5, and Frank J. M. Verstraete DrMedVet, MMedVet, DAVDC6
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  • 1 William R. Pritchard Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital Small Animal Clinic, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616
  • | 2 Departments of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616
  • | 3 Small Animal Clinic, Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, Gerbieva 60, 1000 Ljubljana
  • | 4 Departments of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616
  • | 5 Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616
  • | 6 Departments of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616

Abstract

Objective—To identify risk factors associated with survival in dogs with nontonsillar oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) that were and were not treated with curative-intent surgery.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—31 dogs with OSCC.

Procedures—Medical records for dogs with OSCC that were not treated, or were treated with curative-intent surgery only between January 1990 and December 2010 were reviewed. For each dog, data regarding signalment, clinical stage, treatment, tumor recurrence, and survival time were obtained from the medical record, and archived biopsy specimens were evaluated to identify the histologic subtype of the tumor and extent of tumor-associated inflammation (TAI), perineural invasion (PNI), and lymphovascular invasion (LVI).

Results—Risk of death for the 21 dogs with OSCC that were surgically treated was decreased 91.4% (hazard ratio, 0.086; 95% confidence interval, 0.002 to 0.150), compared with that for the 10 dogs with OSCC that were not treated. The 1-year survival rate was 93.5% and 0% for dogs that were and were not surgically treated, respectively. Risk of death increased significantly with increasing TAI and increasing risk score (combination of TAI, PNI, and LVI). Tumor location, clinical stage, and histologic subtype were not associated with survival time.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that the prognosis for dogs with OSCC was excellent following surgical excision of the tumor. Risk of death increased with increasing TAI, and combining TAI, PNI, and LVI into a single risk score may be a useful prognostic indicator for dogs with OSCC.

Contributor Notes

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest and received no outside funding for completion of the study reported here.

Address correspondence to Dr. Verstraete (fjverstraete@ucdavis.edu).