Osseous sequestration in alpacas and llamas: 36 cases (1999–2010)

Marjolaine Rousseau Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506.

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David E. Anderson Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506.

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Andrew J. Niehaus Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

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Matt D. Miesner Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506.

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Sylvain Nichols Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

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Abstract

Objective—To describe clinical findings, treatments, and outcome in camelids treated for osseous sequestration.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—27 alpacas and 9 llamas with osseous sequestration.

Procedures—Medical records of 2 veterinary teaching hospitals were reviewed to identify camelids evaluated because of osseous sequestration between January 1, 1999, and December 31, 2010. Data on history, signalment, physical examination and medical imaging findings, treatment, and complications were collected.

Results—Records of 36 camelids were included, of which there were 22 sexually intact males, 11 females, and 2 castrated males with a median age of 7. 5 months, 3.9 months, and 8.5 years, respectively (age and sex were not available for 1 camelid). The most common clinical signs were lameness, swelling over the affected bone, and associated draining sinus. Sequestra were associated with trauma in 7 (19%) camelids. Camelids with sequestra not associated with trauma (n = 29 [81%]) were significantly younger than those with sequestra attributed to trauma. Thirty-four camelids underwent sequestrectomy, and all survived to hospital discharge (median duration of hospitalization, 6.5 days). Recurrence of a sequestrum occurred twice in 1 (3%) camelid. Long-term follow-up (≥ 12 months) information was available on 24 camelids, of which 20 (83%) recovered without long-term complications.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Unlike in other livestock, trauma was not a primary cause of osseous sequestration in camelids. Sequestra should be considered in the differential diagnostic process in camelids with lameness, a draining sinus, or a firm swelling over a bony prominence. Sequestrectomy is a successful treatment option.

Abstract

Objective—To describe clinical findings, treatments, and outcome in camelids treated for osseous sequestration.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—27 alpacas and 9 llamas with osseous sequestration.

Procedures—Medical records of 2 veterinary teaching hospitals were reviewed to identify camelids evaluated because of osseous sequestration between January 1, 1999, and December 31, 2010. Data on history, signalment, physical examination and medical imaging findings, treatment, and complications were collected.

Results—Records of 36 camelids were included, of which there were 22 sexually intact males, 11 females, and 2 castrated males with a median age of 7. 5 months, 3.9 months, and 8.5 years, respectively (age and sex were not available for 1 camelid). The most common clinical signs were lameness, swelling over the affected bone, and associated draining sinus. Sequestra were associated with trauma in 7 (19%) camelids. Camelids with sequestra not associated with trauma (n = 29 [81%]) were significantly younger than those with sequestra attributed to trauma. Thirty-four camelids underwent sequestrectomy, and all survived to hospital discharge (median duration of hospitalization, 6.5 days). Recurrence of a sequestrum occurred twice in 1 (3%) camelid. Long-term follow-up (≥ 12 months) information was available on 24 camelids, of which 20 (83%) recovered without long-term complications.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Unlike in other livestock, trauma was not a primary cause of osseous sequestration in camelids. Sequestra should be considered in the differential diagnostic process in camelids with lameness, a draining sinus, or a firm swelling over a bony prominence. Sequestrectomy is a successful treatment option.

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